Literary and Rhetorical Genre Epic Dramatic Work Song Play Reader Language Author position Creative Dictation Creation process Trope Metaphor Irony Sound scheme Alliteration Pararhyme
Grouping Fall Rise Meter Tetrameter Free Divisioning Stanzaic Arranged Prolongation Extensional Fragmentary Syntactic Anaphora Symploce scheme Discourse Paratactic Dialectical Semiotic Iconic Symbolic relation Structure Repetition Network Position Initial Peripheral Figuration Opposition Multeity Contrast Difference Pattern Concentric Multidimensional Process Repetitive Static Proleptic Anticlimactic Contradictory Open Fixed Undirected IV.
For example, in the end-rhymes "gun"/ "run," and the pararhyme
"power" / "war," the power held by "white racists" "through the barrel of a gun" is connected but "mis-matched" to the answering "liberation war." The mis-match suggests an unequal struggle through which the liberation war will triumph and racists will be "on the run." Repetition and interweaving of sounds serve to create and emphasize internal lyrical and musical rhythms and to create semantic connections.
For example, in Shippey's analysis of the three lines pronounced by Eomer over Theodon's body, he covers the six half-lines and a "pararhyme
" (or consonance) of might- and meet in the second part of the first line and the first part of the second.
In the first essay, Stallworthy is concerned with chivalric heroism, but in the other he is more interested in Owen's influence on other poets, noting in "Gallantry" "its echo of his 'Doomed Youth'; its use of the pararhyme
he pioneered (fool/fell); its thematic and linguistic links with [Owen's] poem 'The Last Laugh'" (75).
Kerrigan suggests that in Muldoon's 'The Mud Room' pararhyme
'maximises the possibilities of movement, increases the numbers of end-of-line options for semantic detours [...] the rhymes are like the bluegreen conjunctions of a border which constitutes a path'.
His imagery carried us into comparing sonnets, had us listening for rhyme and pararhyme
(e.g., silent/salient, wire/war), checking allusions and consulting maps, even voluntarily looking words up in the dictionary.
Such readers are also exhorted to exploit the structural licence offered by pararhyme
. The framework of the exposition is not theoretical but illustrative, drawing from the breadth of English poetry, often from well-known pieces, but also from relatively unknown authors, and the quotations are long enough to hold the interest of the reader.
Other types of rhyme include eye rhyme, in which syllables are identical in spelling but are pronounced differently (cough/slough), and pararhyme
, first used systematically by the 20th-century poet Wilfred Owen, in which the two syllables have different vowel sounds but identical penultimate and final consonantal groupings (grand/grind).
However, Staniforth is fairly close; he respects the scheme as much as Dale, though he is unafraid of assonance and pararhyme
in place of perfect rhyme, not the case with Dale.
Note as well that pararhyme
, the relativistic sound scheme, links "icebox," emblem of the mind and imagination, to "breakfast," emblem of the senses and the body.
Instead of using strong alliteration, which foregrounds syllabic onsets, these textures use dissonant pararhyme
("land"--"line"--"long"--"lean"--"lending"--"ledges"; "can"--"clean"--"confirmation"; "shadows"--"shallows"; "same"--"simple"; "excitement"--"cities"--"suits"; "best"--"blossom"; "here"--"hare"), which foregrounds syllabic peripheries.
For instance, among sound schemes, alliteration repeats syllabic onsets and therefore is a reflex of meter; assonance, rhyme, and reverse rhyme repeat syllabic nuclei and therefore are reflexes of grouping; consonance repeats syllabic codas and therefore is a reflex of prolongation; and pararhyme
repeats syllabic peripheries and therefore is a reflex of theme.