in the biliary system and thus could cause liver and biliary disorders.
However, these parasites only parasitize
the pulmonary airways and alveoli (CASWELL & WILLIAMS, 2015).
Haywardi was also capible to parasitize
the pupae that were buried up to 5 cm depth.
Mites are known to be parasitic on both invertebrate and vertebrate animals and mites that parasitize
mosquitoes are recorded in a few places worldwide.
Moreover, some crustacean species may affect fish breathing when they parasitize
their gills, with negative influence on hosts' swimming and growth (Semmens et al.
Most species of this genus parasitize
on either sawfly or lepidopteran larvae (Shima 1999).
Skillful at stealth and stalking, brown-headed cow-birds parasitize
birds of about 200 other species throughout North America; researchers have observed that birds of 144 of those species have raised cowbird offspring.
The effectiveness of a parasitoid depends upon its ability to locate hosts at low densities and to parasitize
large numbers of hosts at high densities.
This is the case of the cosmopolitan Taenia taeniaeformis Batsch, 1786 (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) whose adult stages parasitize
the small intestine of felids, viverrids, and canids including domestic dogs and mainly domestic cats (Miyasaki, 1991; Loos-Frank, 2000).
frugiperda can be carried out by releasing natural enemies, such as Braconidae, Eulophidae, Ichneumonidae and Trichogrammatidae species, which parasitize
the eggs or caterpillars (HOBALLAH et al.
2006); individuals of Pachysomoides fulvus Cresson, 1864 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chalcoela pegasalis Walker, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), Elasmus polistis Burks, 1971 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Xenos peckii Kirby, 1813 (Coleoptera: Stylopidae) parasitize
the paper wasp Polistes metricus Say, 1831 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in northeast Georgia, USA (Hodges et al.
Ptdex simulans is known to parasitize
a wide variety of mammalian species, especially carnivores, burrowing mammals and other medium-sized mammals (Hopla 1980, Durden et al.