This biological control agent parasitizes
pupae of several coleopteran and lepidopteran species, including Tenebrio molitor L.
The larval stage parasitizes
a wide variety of plant species and infest economically important plants (SPENCER, 1973; BENAVENTE-CORAI et al., 2005).
Number of parasitizes
Ewp' age (h) eggs/female (a) Emergency (a) (%) 0-12 21.0 [+ or -] 0.46 a 85.8 [+ or -] 1.96 a 24-36 21.0 [+ or -] 0.34 a 87.5 [+ or -] 1.65 a 48-60 14.8 [+ or -] 0.80 b 77.6 [+ or -] 2.39 b F 39.27 6.81 P <0.0001 0.0027 Number of emerged Ewp' age (h) individuals/egg host (a) Sexual Ratio (a) 0-12 1.5 [+ or -] 0.07 a 0.80 [+ or -] 0.02 a 24-36 1.3 [+ or -] 0.15 a 0.83 [+ or -] 0.01 a 48-60 1.1 [+ or -] 0.12 a 0.79 [+ or -] 0.03 a F 2.98 0.93 P 0.0619 0.4006 (a) Means ([+ or -] SE) followed by the same letter, in column, do not differ significantly by Tukey test (p [less than or equal to] 0.05).
Such parasitic larva of almost all aquatic mites parasitizes
hosts from a number of different aquatic insects including Diptera (Smith et al., 2001; Proctor, 2009; Mumcuoglu and Braverman, 2010; Shatrov, 2012), Trichoptera (Smith et al., 2001), Plecoptera (Smith et al., 2001), Coleoptera (Smith et al., 2001), Hemiptera (Smith et al., 2001; Proctor, 2009) and Odonata (Leung et al., 1999; Forbes et al., 1999; Smith et al., 2001; Mayoral and Barranco, 2012; Zawal and Buczynski, 2013).
Orobanche cumana is naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes
wild Asteraceae species, mainly Artemisia spp.
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Megaselia scalaris Loew, 1866 (Diptera: Phoridae) in Vicosa, MGS, Brazil (Soares et al., 2006); individuals of Pachysomoides fulvus Cresson, 1864 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chalcoela pegasalis Walker, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), Elasmus polistis Burks, 1971 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Xenos peckii Kirby, 1813 (Coleoptera: Stylopidae) parasitize
the paper wasp Polistes metricus Say, 1831 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in northeast Georgia, USA (Hodges et al., 2003); and Sulcopolistes atrimandibularis Zimmermann, 1930 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) parasitizes
Polistes biglumis L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in the French Alps (Schwammberger, 1998).
the striped skunk, the hooded skunk (Mephitis tnacroura Lichtenstein) and, curiously, the island fox (Urocyon littoralis (Baird)) in North America (Price et al.
The flies are a native species that parasitizes
the forest tent caterpillars' pupae.
This species of tick, which at least during its immature life stages parasitizes
migratory birds, is widely distributed in many African countries, including South Africa (7).
Whereas most mistletoe plants are bits of shrubby fluff parasitizing trees, Australia's Nuytsia floribunda--itself a tree--grows an underground network that parasitizes
smaller plants, such as grass and even the domesticated garden carrot.
We will use the mussel Utterbackia imbecillis, which parasitizes
the common bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus.
Phoradendron commonly parasitizes
Acacia gregii (catclaw) and Prosopis grandulosa (honey mesquite), but only occasionally parasitizes
Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) and Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) in southern Nevada.