Three-dimensional echocardiography demonstrating the thickened mitral valve leaflets with fused commissures (fish-mouth appearance) in parasternal
short axis view, suggesting rheumatic mitral stenosis.
The following inclusion criteria were used in this study: (i) congenital PMVSD as shown by echocardiography; (ii) body weight >10 kg and age >2 years; (iii) maximum VSD diameter 20 mm by TTE; (iv) defect located at the 9 to 11 o'clock positions of an analog clock in the short-axis parasternal
view by TTE; (v) a distance of 1mm from the PMVSD to the aortic valve; (vi) left-to-right shunt; and (vii) calculated pulmonary vascular resistance <8 Wood units.
Surgical debridement confirmed sternal osteomyelitis with parasternal
LV Posterior wall Diameter (PWD) in end diastole >3.5mm, LV mass >35gm/m2 measured in parasternal
long axis on M-mode, LV mass/Volume ratio >2 as good, 1.5 to 2 as acceptable, LV volume measured in apical four chamber view.
It was done using the same M-mode cross-section in the parasternal
long axis view.
Epicardial fat thickness was evaluated on the free wall of right ventricle from the parasternal
long axis view, using aortic annulus as an anatomic reference.
The visual EF was calculated by assessing the parasternal
long and short-axis, apical 4- and 2-chamber views through at least three cardiac cycles.
long axis and four-chamber images in the echocardiography showed aortic dissection and compression of the left atrium and the left ventricle caused due to an aneurysm when the patient was evaluated for the first time (Figure 1a).
Excision of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma via parasternal
End-diastolic and end-systolic diameters and systolic and diastolic septum and the posterior wall thickness of the left ventricle were measured using echocardiography in M-mode through the parasternal
The probe was placed longitudinally in the 2nd intercostal space on the left parasternal
line and the classically described "bat sign" was seen (Figure 1A).
The initial plane of assessment is longitudinal with the long axis of the body; placement of the probe should be between the parasternal
and mid-clavicular line.