medinensis can use an amphibian (frog) as a paratenic host
in the laboratory (8) and has recovered, for the first time ever, a Dracunculus larva from a frog captured in the wild in Chad (9).
2000) reported that variations in the infection parameter of anisakids in fish species are related in part to the presence of definitive hosts, environmental factors, such as temperature, that influence the development of the parasite eggs, populations of intermediate or paratenic host
crustaceans, as well as the age, size and feeding habits of the fish.
3,5) As soon as the raw secondary intermediate or paratenic host
containing infective larvae is ingested and reaches the stomach, a syndrome of severe epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting begins and lasts for two to three weeks, before resolving completely.
Higher infections in larger fish may be transmitted both by the intermediate hosts and fish as paratenic host
in the bay.
renale, the intermediate host is an aquatic oligochaete of the genus Lumbriculus which ingests eggs containing the first-in-star larva of the parasite, while the definitive host is infected by ingesting water containing the oligochaete, or the paratenic host
which can be a fish or an amphibian (1).
Perch may act in the nematod development as either the second intermediate or paratenic host
The beetle gets ingested by the final host (a carnivore) or a paratenic host
Other ways in which dogs may become infected are by suckling, or by consuming a paratenic host
(a host in which the parasite survive without further development) such as small rodent.
The first record of amphibians as paratenic host
of Serpinema larvae (Nematoda: Camallanidae).
Visceral larva migrans (VLM), also known as larva migrans visceralis, is a syndrome caused by invasion of internal organs of the paratenic host
(transport host where larvae do not undergo any development) by second-stage nematode larvae.
Indirect life cycles involve a paratenic host
(or a host in which significant development does not occur) in addition to the developmental (spider) host, which is infected by ingesting the infective stage of the parasite (Poinar 1985).