* The flatworm is known to be a potential paratenic host
: It is known to have the potential to carry parasites.
Channa punctatus serves as a paratenic host
Moreover, as it is a possible paratenic host
, facilitated by its soft body, habitat, and generalist habits (Fischer et al., 2010), A.
Although the most recent case in Louisiana resulted from consumption of a paratenic host
(12), work elsewhere suggests that transmission to humans most likely occurs through accidental consumption of raw or undercooked infected snails on produce (7).
Research studies increasingly favor the hypothesis that the parasite's life cycle in Chad involves a transport or paratenic host
. As research continues, the program has intensified active surveillance, education of villagers, containment of infected dogs, burial of fish entrails, and application of temephos, giving priority to villages with the most infected dogs.
Humans can be infected either by accidentally ingesting infected eggs or eating undercooked or raw meat from an infected paratenic host
like chickens, ruminants, or pigs [36,37].
(3,5) As soon as the raw secondary intermediate or paratenic host
containing infective larvae is ingested and reaches the stomach, a syndrome of severe epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting begins and lasts for two to three weeks, before resolving completely.
Higher infections in larger fish may be transmitted both by the intermediate hosts and fish as paratenic host
in the bay.
In aquaculture situations fish become infected with nematodes if they are fed on live foods containing infective life stages or if they are raised in culture settings that promote the growth of other animals that carry the infective stages of the nematode (vector or paratenic host
) or allow nematodes to complete their life cycle (intermediate hosts).
renale, the intermediate host is an aquatic oligochaete of the genus Lumbriculus which ingests eggs containing the first-in-star larva of the parasite, while the definitive host is infected by ingesting water containing the oligochaete, or the paratenic host
which can be a fish or an amphibian (1).
The beetle gets ingested by the final host (a carnivore) or a paratenic host
Other ways in which dogs may become infected are by suckling, or by consuming a paratenic host
(a host in which the parasite survive without further development) such as small rodent.