Measurements of V[O.sub.2] during ambulation using passive orthotic devices, such as RGO, ARGO, Parawalker, and Craig-Scott braces, are presented in Table 4.
Energy cost of paraplegic locomotion with the ORLAU ParaWalker. Paraplegia.
A review of 42 patients of 16 years and over using the ORLAU Parawalker. Prosthet Orthot Int 1997; 21:147-52.
In the literature, the ratio of abandonment of lower extremity braces has been reported to be 31%-65% for lower extremity braces, including long leg braces and short leg braces, 25%-34% for the reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO), and 40% for parawalkers (9-15).
Masri, "Augmentation of the Oswestry Parawalker
orthosis by means of surface electrical stimulation: gait analysis of three patients", Spinal Cord, vol.
That proved to be right up to a point as Terry defied medical opinion by becoming the only man in the country, with his level of injury to walk with the aid of a parawalker
(a lightweight frame that keeps the body upright) and crutches for balance.
Another type of hybrid system used for assisted-ambulation is the ParaWalker System (Orthotic Research & Locomotion Assessment Unit, Oswestry, England) (123).
Engineering design considerations of the ORLAU Parawalker and FES hybrid system.
Hybrid paraplegic locomotion with the ParaWalker
using intramuscular stimulation: A single subject study.
: A rational approach to the provision of reciprocal ambulation for paraplegic patients.
Some years later, in an effort to develop a less demanding gait, dynamic orthoses that allowed passive hip joint movement were developed: the reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) , the advanced RGO , the hip guidance orthosis , the ParaWalker
, and the Walkabout .
A clinical review of adult paraplegic patients with complete lesion using the ORLAU Parawalker