I realise vengeance is not an admirable parental quality
but I'm looking forward to those teenage years when they want a lie in and I need to do the hoovering.
Parental quality of life and recurrent ENT infections in their children: development of a questionnaire.
The impact of childhood acute otitis media on parental quality of life in a prospective observational cohort study.
Parental quality and egg size affect chick survival in a precocial bird, the lapwing Vanellus vanellus.
Determinants of chick survival in the lesser black backed gull; relative contributions of egg-size and parental quality.
We measured quality of life issues for both children and their parents on the premise that parental quality
of life should be an aspect of cost-effectiveness in otitis media treatment.
In measuring the latter, we removed the potentially confounding effects (1) between parental quality and egg quality and (2) between increased egg production and parental condition, using a cross-fostering protocol in which eggs were reared by control parents.
Such confounding effects are likely to be particularly imp ortant in species with post-hatching parental care, such as birds, in which parental quality is known to be a major factor influencing young survival (Amundsen and Stokland 1990, Reid and Boersma 1990, Bolton 1991, Magrath 1992, Blomqvist et al.
Since the higher-investing sex (often females) is likely to exhibit greater variation in parental quality
, one might expect the benefits of choice to be greater for the opposite sex, which contributes less to parental care (Parker 1983; Deutsch and Reynolds 1995).
Two common criticisms are: (1) that egg size can vary within as well as among clutches, making it difficult to distinguish between these two sources of variation, and (2) that parental quality
might have an overriding influence on both egg size and offspring fitness.
This is because territory and parental quality
are, on average, similar between parents with the same original laying date.
In an experiment with Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) Reid and Boersma (1990) demonstrated that egg size had only a small effect on nestling growth, whereas parental quality
had a large effect.