Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia upheld EPA's decision to tighten air quality standards for fine particulate matter
in National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) v.
(PM) consists of soot, inorganic matter (ash), and organic matter (nonvolatile flammable).
Lead author Dr Marie Pedersen, from the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Barcelona, said: "Our findings suggest that a substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution, particularly fine particulate matter
, was reduced."
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other sources have suggested a number of ways to cut down on the potential damage associated with high levels of fine particulate matter
(small particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter) in the air, including:
The first hour focuses on defining particulate matter
and how it gets into the environment; trends in air quality; air quality regulations; air quality effects on public health; and finding air quality information.
The text, which is significantly revised by the 4 May agreement, sets new emission reduction targets for ammonia emissions from agriculture, emissions of fine particulate matter
, sulphur and oxides of nitrogen from transport and industry, and emissions of volatile organic compounds from sources like paint and varnish.
The EPA said traffic was the primary source of nitrogen dioxide and also one of the main sources of particulate matter
Around 60,000 people in the United States will die each year from this particulate matter
, according to the American Heart Association.
Standard diesel exhaust gas treatment equipment consists of a diesel oxidation converter (DOC), which removes hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide(CO), and a catalyst-coated diesel particulate filter (DPF), which removes particulate matter
. With a conventional catalyst, the DOC itself also requires platinum to produce nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as the conventional catalyst cannot decompose particulate matter
without the oxidation action of NO2.
According to Zeng, unlike current methods of monitoring air-borne particulate matter
(PM), the CPMMS monitors the portion of PM that can reach and deposit in a human respiratory system.
"Coarse particulate matter
is nothing more than the dust kicked up by cars or trucks traveling on dirt roads, a tractor tilling a field, or cattle moving around on dirt," says NCBA Chief Environmental Counsel Tamara Thies.
However, a treatment process (combustion) is necessary to remove the particulate matter
(soot) that is produced in the exhaust.