There are three benefits of 3D shaping: increase of capacity by shaping constellation points' probability with Fractional QAM; increase of reach by shaping constellation points' location; and maximisation of channel passband
usage by shaping spectral width with adaptive baud rate.
One transmission ([TZ.sub.1]) is allocated on the left side of the passband
, while the other ([TZ.sub.2]) experiences a significant frequency shifting.
Narrow bandpass filters (NBPFs) are often required for multimode and multiband operations in various wireless systems in order to remove multiple spurious frequency components existing very close to the desired passband
The location of the passband
and its width are critical factors that affect the design implementation of the filter.
When the measurements are centered between the start and stop frequencies, where the start frequency is distant from the WMF of the VNA, so that any extrapolation for low frequencies and DC component becomes critical in approximation terms apart from the WMF value, then the IDFT has to be applied only to the measured frequency points; this case is called "passband
mode" by Manufacturers of VNAs [12-15].
The desired response function in the passband
is chosen as 
np and ns are the sets of dense grid points in the passband
and the stopband, respectively.
The first UWB BPF is a dual-stop band filter and it is formed by cascading several microstrip ring resonators with loaded open stubs .Later on, such a wideband filter with the specified passband
is constructed by directly cascading a single low pass filter with a single high pass filter on microstrip line and suspended strip line ,cascading microstrip-to-coplanar waveguide (CPW) broadside-coupling sections together and non-periodically interrupting several short-circuited stubs with a uniform microstrip line in (G.M.Yang, R.Jin, and J.Geng, 2006).
The result of the effect of the Fourier filter with a passband
from 13 to 35 Hz corresponding to the beta rhythm range is shown in Figure 6.
To achieve two passbands
with controllable bandwidth, two poles existing in each passband
However, these resonators have only one TZ near the passband
These 2 to 12 pole crystal filters can operate over a temperature range of -55 to +85 degrees C with a bandwidth @3dB from [+ or -]2kHz and with the passband
ripple as low as 0.5dB and insertion loss down to 2.5dB.