It is a major component of the pectoral girdle
playing an important role in the varied and complex movements of the upper limb.
Radiographic findings show asymmetry on the position of the pectoral girdle
. The furcula (clavicles) is fused to the most cranial and ventral aspect of the sternum.
Head and pectoral girdle
spine formation begins during the preflexion stage between 5.2-6.0 mm, with the posterior preopercular, parietal, pterotic, and postocular spines.
the number of scales along the line in the position that would normally be occupied by a typical lateral line scale." A count from the caudal base along the lower pored lateral line segment, continuing forward on unpored scales ends at a narrow fleshy unscaled area just behind the pectoral base, not reaching the pectoral girdle
itself; counting posteriorly from the shoulder girdle above the pectoral fin base on the upper, shorter anterior pored segment results in a complete count to the caudal base as defined, but bypasses the majority of the pored scales in the lower lateral line.
The time of ossification in pectoral girdle
and sternum: Scapula, Clavicle, Coracoid, Humerus:
Stridulation sounds in channel catfish are produced during pectoral spine abduction (forward fin sweeps), when ridges on the spine's base rub against a bony part of the pectoral girdle
called the cleithrum.
tridactylum capture, we measured snout-vent length (SVL), total length (TL), and pectoral girdle
circumference (PGC) using a measuring tape ([+ or -] 0.5 cm).
with a sharp dorsal process on cleithrum, reaching one third of length of supracleithrum.
She said that in modern lungfish, the longer mouth cavity enables them to hold a bubble of air in their mouths, while the cranial ribs anchor the pectoral girdle
during air gulping.
The functional morphology of the pectoral girdle
and the other muscular and skeletal elements involved in lifting and locomotion in this species is a rich area for study and may offer phylogenetic insights as well.
The pelvic girdle was firmly attached to the vertebral column, and the pectoral girdle
had smaller extrascapular dermal bone components (with the exception of the clavicle, which was larger).
Puffers possess significant modifications of the pectoral girdle
and head that function in the pumping mechanism (Wainwright et al.