setal formula (fPp) N-NB-NN-NNN-NNNN[zeta][omega] (Figs.
sclerite homologies and phylogenetic placement of the spider genus Stemonyphantes (Linyphiidae, Araneae) and its implications for linyphiid phylogeny.
The egg at the 35th hour of incubation showed the development of embryonic metameres which were anteriorely formed an acron, primary buds for pedipalp
and chelicerae and also first pair of legs.
While on the female's ventral side, the male drummed with his pedipalps
on and near the female's genital openings (epigynum), and finally inserted a pedipalp
into the female genital opening.
The evidence for a terminal molt include (1) field measurement of 288 adults in Pleasant Bay indicating adults of several age groups have similar size distributions (Shuster 1955), (2) the male pedipalp
is transformed at maturity from chelate form to a swollen hook useful for grasping females during amplexus, (3) presence of internal chitinous fibers (trabeculae) in male and female adults, which could interfere with ecdysis (Shuster & Sekiguchi 2003), (4) the observation that slipper shells (Crepidula fornicata) up to 8 y old have been found attached to adult carapaces indicating that molting had not occurred for at least the slipper shell's lifespan (Botton & Ropes 1988a, Grady et al.
The male spider grows to only about one-hundredth the size of a female, yet one pedipalp
accounts for some 10 percent of his body mass.
Scorpion fragments, including a pedipalp
chela articulating with a patella (Fig.
Emasculation to plug up females: the significance of pedipalp
damage in Nephila fenestrata.
Primiparous Gonopores as above, modified pedipalps
, both pedipalp
digits intact on both sides.
Another male, who made his second pedipalp
insertion into a nearby mealworm, also died, Fairbairn and Matthias W.
Genital acetabula many pairs; female genital field with two pairs of acetabular plates; anterior female plates with an elongate, inner flap that is heavily sclerotized and bears one or two, short, thick, spinous, setae; posterior female plate modified with many acetabula; pedipalp
subcylindrical and well-sclerotized with tarsus usually nearly quadrate in outline with large, obvious clawlets; most species with obvious dorsal plates; male genital field as in Pentatax Thor; first walking legs with large prominent setae; male fourth walking leg modified in some species; tarsal claws of walking legs deeply bifid in some species; coxal plates with obvious borders.
of Homolophus nakhichevanicus, male, SEM: a.