The first wave began in mid-1940s with emergence of penicillin-resistance, because of plasmid encoded penicillinase
that hydrolyses the beta-lactam ring of penicillin essential for its antimicrobial activity.
According to the studies, the percentage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence is due to different plans of hospitals and the less capability of coupling with penicillin binding proteins for antibiotics with beta-lactam ring and the excess of penicillinase
For patient safety, nurses must review ordered antibiotics to assure no penicillin or penicillinase
drugs are administered (Lexicomp, 2015).
The oxacillin is an antibiotic of the penicillin group, and it is resistant to the staphylococcal penicillinase
production and in vitro susceptibilities of Staphylococcus lugdunensis.
coli, like OmpA (13,14), PhoA (15), pelB (14,16), LTB (17), npr (18), StII (19,20), DsbA (8), penicillinase
(21) and natural hGH signal peptide (22).
Lots : Penicillinase
- resistant smalspectrumpenicillines intravenous form ,flucloxacillin 500 mg capsule / tablet,Moxifloxacin oral form ,Moxifloxacin intravenous form ,Clarithromycin intravenous form,Clarithromycin intravenous form etc
The Oxacillin resistance was because of the reason that most of the isolates were Coagulase negative Staphylococci which are usu-ally resistant to penicillinase
resistant group of anti-biotics as compared to Staphylococcus aureus.
Methicillin was first introduced in 1959 and was used to resist the action of penicillinase
, the enzyme responsible for the resistance to penicillin.
2, 3] Other known mechanism of methicillin resistance is the hyperproduction of penicillinase
A large number of alkaline enzymes with industrial applications are available such as alkaline protease, amylase, pectinase, cellulase, alginase, pullulanase, catalase, glucanase, xylanase, penicillinase
, maltose dehydrogenase, glucose dehydrogenase, uricase and polyamine oxidase.
As opposed to the penicillinase
gene, mecA does not reside on a plasmid but on the chromosome, embedded in a large mobile genetic element called Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec or SCCmec [10, 11].