Betulinic acid (3[beta],hydroxyl-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid) (Compound 1 in Scheme-1) is a lupane-structured pentacyclic
triterpene that can be obtained from many fruits, plants, and vegetables, and higher amounts can be extracted from birch tree bark (Betula species), sycamore and eucalyptus bark, the bark of planes (Platanus species), and chemical or enzymatic oxidation of betulin (extracted in large amounts from white birch tree bark) [1-4].
L.camara contains pentacyclic
triterpenoids that cause hepatotoxicity and photosensitivity when ingested by grazing animals such as sheep, goats, bovines and horses.
Immunomodulatory Activity of Boswellic Acids (Pentacyclic
Triterpene Acids) from Boswellia serrata.
triterpenoid extracts showed significant differences between products, which may be attributed to different solvents used in extraction.
In addition, boswellic acids are the major constituents of frankincense resin which are groups of pentacyclic
terpenoids and have an antiproliferative effect on tumours (Al-Yasiry and Kiczorowska, 2016).
Betulinic acid (3-hydroxy-lup-20 (29)-en-28-oic acid)10 structurally speaking is a pentacyclic
lupine type compound belonging to a class named triterpenoid which is distributed broadly in the plant kingdom.
The most remarkable results of these researches were the presence of a unique subgroup of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids called gracilines and the isolation of an unusual pentacyclic
dinitrogenous alkaloid called gracilamine (Noyan et al.
Triterpenes, a, P-amyrins: A Review of Sources and Biological Activities.
triterpenoids from the medicinal herb, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban.
In relation to the structure and activity relationship, pentacyclic
triterpenes possess a carboxylic acid functional group at carbon 17, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity .
Wenzel, "Antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of maslinic and oleanolic acids, two pentacyclic
triterpenes from olives, on HT-29 colon cancer cells," British Journal of Nutrition, vol.
Eloff, "Four pentacyclic
triterpenoids with antifungal and antibacterial activity from Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A.