The standard drug pentazocine
(Group 2) has produced a sustained elevation of reaction time upto 120 min [Table 1].
Table 1 Medications that can cause serotonin syndrome Action Medications Increases serotonin Tryptophan formation Increases release of Amphetamines and amphetamine derivatives serotonin Cocaine MDMA Impairs serotonin Cocaine, MDMA, meperidine, reuptake tramadol, pentazocine
SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline) SNRIs (desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, venlafaxine, levomilnacipran) Dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (bupropion) Serotonin modulators (nefazodone, trazodone, vilazodone, vortioxetine) TCAs (amitriptyline, amoxapine, clomipramine, desipramine, doxepin) St.
([section]) Short and long acting opioid drugs in this study included buprenorphine, butorphanol, codeine, dihydrocodeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, levorphanol, meperidine, methadone, morphine, naltrexone, nalbuphine, naloxone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine
, propoxyphene, tapentadol, and tramadol.
Commonly used drugs are Tramadol, Pethidine, Pentazocine
, Clonidine, Dexmedetomidine etc.
or tramadol were the opioid medications used.
For instance, several opioid agonist-antagonists such as buprenorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine
have been used for decades to reduce pain in patients with acute pain in the emergency department, in the ambulance or in the hospital with some useful effect but with serious complications such as dysphoria.
(13,14) Some sigma-1 receptor modulators such as dextrorphan, carbetapentane, and pentazocine
could attenuate seizures induced by the kainic acid or maximal electroshock in mice.
Incidentally, all the culprits are males who were also found with Pentazocine
111gms, Amitriptyline 74.6gms, Cough syrup with Codeine 35.85gms, Rohypnol 235.6gms, pentobarbital 16.4gms and, co-codamol 193.5gms.
Avoid mixed antagonist and agonist narcotics (butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine
) as they may cause acute withdrawal.
Of the 5 studies included in the "one-study" removed analysis, 4 studies contained a propofol + additional sedative comparison arm consisting of propofol + dexmedetomidine , midazolam + propofol , ketamine + propofol , and diazemul or pentazocine
+ propofol .
Owolabi, "Pain Relief in labor: a randomized controlled trial comparing pentazocine
with Tramadol," Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol.
Blocking studies using vesamicol, a VAChT ligand, or pentazocine
, a selective [[sigma].sub.1] ligand, had not been reported.