tricolor against seizures induced by PTZ and MES in mice Group Treatment 1 Saline (Control)+PTZ (100 mg/kg) 2 Saline containing 1% Tween 20+PTZ (100 mg/kg) 3 Saline containing 1% DMSO+PTZ (100 mg/kg) 4-6 VHE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg)+PTZ (100 mg/kg) 7-9 EAF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg)+PTZ (100 mg/kg) 10-12 NBF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg)+PTZ (100 mg/kg) 13 DZP (5 mg/kg)+PTZ (100 mg/kg) 14 Saline (Control)+MES 15 Saline containing 1% Tween 20+MES 16 Saline containing 1% DMSO+MES 17-19 VHE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg)+MES 20-22 EAF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg)+MES 23-25 NBF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg)+MES 26 DZP (5 mg/kg)+MES PTZ: Pentylenetetrazol
; VHE: Hydroalcoholic extract of V.
injection of 35 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol
(PTZ) (Sigma, St.
The chemical induction of seizures in psychiatric therapy: were flurothyl (indoklon) and pentylenetetrazol
(metrazol) abandoned prematurely?
(PTZ) drug can cause seizure and results in cognitive disorders,2 changes in emotional behavior3 and neuronal loss.4 PTZ exposure cause brain damage and induce epileptic seizures by affecting specific receptors and the magnitudes of seizure differ in the developing brain as compared to the mature brain.5 A large number of signaling pathways are involved that results in seizure-induced neuronal cell damage, change in behavior, intellectual dysfunction and apoptosis.6
Gao, "Saikosaponin a functions as anti-epileptic effect in pentylenetetrazol
induced rats through inhibiting mTOR signaling pathway," Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol.
Colasanti, "A study of pentylenetetrazol
kindling in rats and mice," Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol.
Effects of enadoline on the development of pentylenetetrazol
kindling, learning performance, and hippocampal morphology.
This is particularly the case of absence seizures, in which spike-wave complexes, pathognomonic expressions of absence seizures (petit mal epilepsy), are either produced spontaneously or induced in rodents and primates through the injection of penicillin, pentylenetetrazol
, gamma-hydroxybutyrate and GABAergic agonists (SNEAD, 1994, 1998).
Hashimoto, "Deep brain stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus activates the histaminergic system to exert antiepileptic effect in rat pentylenetetrazol
model," Experimental Neurology, vol.
The potency of RDX at the [GABA.sub.A] convulsant site ([K.sub.i] of 21.1 [micro]M) is similar to pentylenetetrazol
, a convulsant commonly used in animal models of seizure and epilepsy that is also known to bind at the picrotoxin convulsant site (Coulter et al.
He first used potentially toxic camphorated oil injections, and later tried pentylenetetrazol
, commercially known as either Cardiazol or Metrazol, but neither succeeded.
When the vagus nerve is stimulated, specific basal ganglia express los, indicating neuronal activity, which may modulate seizure discharges. Woodbury and Woodbury suggested that vagus stimulation may act by increasing release of glycine or gamma-amino-butyric acid, because seizures induced by both pentylenetetrazol
and strychnine can be blocked by vagus stimulation. There also is a nonspecific alteration of activity in the brainstem reticular system with arousal that must be considered.[24,30] This would indicate that there are numerous pathways by which VNS can modulate seizure activity.