at medium temperatures followed by inorganic precursor absorption over polymeric carriers is one of the alternative and easier methods to obtain TiO2 crystals when compared to other methods [22-25].
It determines surface phenomena occurring at the interface, such as peptization
We assume that the additive provides destruction due to peptization
of aggregate combinations of asphaltenes with the formation of highly disperse RASs; that is, asphaltenes disperse into smaller structures.
Ripke, "Effects of bentonite fiber formation in iron ore peptization
," International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol.
CIP efficiencies strongly depend on chemical reactions between foulants and membrane surface, as well as the reactions between foulants and chemicals, which include hydrolysis, peptization
, saponification, solubilization, dispersion, and chelation [9-11].
One interesting aspect of titania nanoparticles is their susceptibility to peptization
. The addition of nitric acid or various tetraalkyl ammonia hydroxides allows aggregates to be redispersed into primary particles.
of coagulants is only possible in the case of reversible nature of coagulation of particles in suspension.
Figure 1 presents a TEM image of [Fe.sub.3][O.sub.4] nanoparticles that were synthesized by oleic acid peptization
. The diameters of the particles are uniformly distributed with an average of 24 nm.
In direct extrusion (DE), materials (pellets, fillers, fibers, and additives) are converted directly into the final product--usually fiat film, sheet, fibers, or profiles--bypassing peptization
. Twin-screw extruders are generally required for such inline compounding and extrusion.
Among them are the sol-gel, hydrothermal and peptization
methods, with advantage of low reaction temperature [6,7,8,9,10,11].
* 37% Hydrochloric acid (HCl), manufactured by Merck as a catalyst for peptization