The Cockett 1, 2, and 3 (superior, medium, and inferior) perforator veins are located in the inferior two-thirds of the lower limbs; the Sherman perforating vein
includes the upper tibial perforating veins
, that connect the posterior arch vein with the posterior tibial veins; the Hunter perforator, also known as the adductor canal perforator, is located in the distal third region of the thigh, however, rarely in the adductor canal; the Dodd perforator is also located in the adductor canal in the mid-thigh region; the Boyd perforator vein, also named the paratibial perforating vein
, is located in the initial part of the calf, below the knee joint (11).
Correlation of perforating vein
incompetence with extent of great saphenous insufficiency: Cross sectional study.
We examined 23 left limbs (48%) and 25 right limbs (52%) and performed 32 greater vein saphenectomies, 1 lesser vein saphenectomy, 10 preservations of the greater saphenous vein (double ligation of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ)), 1 greater and lesser vein saphenectomy, 3 ligations of the perforating vein
, and 1 tributary removal.
During follow-up there were eight cases of incomplete healing of the ulcer, four in Group I (19.04%)--in one of them an incompetent Cockett perforating vein
was showed and later treated by ultrasound guided sclerotherapy--and four in Group II (40%) P < 0.05.
Often it will extend several centimeters up the posterior thigh to terminate in a perforating vein
cross the muscle fascia and link the deep veins beneath the fascia to the superficial veins.
Fifty-five limbs of 44 patients were subjected to additional EVLA procedures for targeting the lesser saphenous veins (LSV), the accessory veins, or the perforating veins
. Moreover, sclerotherapy was performed during the 6th month for treating resistant superficial varicose veins in patients in whom EVLA therapy had been unsuccessful.
The surgical interruption of reflux in the superficial and perforating veins
to reduce venous hypertension in the entire leg and/or the affected area.
These lesions usually occur in the medial and occasionally in the lateral perimalleolar region at the site of major perforating veins
and the greatest hydrostatic pressure.
in their small case series injected cyanoacrylate-lipiodol into gastric varices at the level of perforating veins
, under EUS guidance .
Preoperative evaluation of varicose veins must reveal the primary cause of varicosity, secondary reflux, and the distribution of varicosity, including perforating veins