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Situated around the aqueduct of the brain: the periaqueductal gray matter.
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The RAGE system involves medial regions of the amygdala, medial regions of the hypothalamus, and the periaqueductal gray.
The results of brain MRI scan showed symmetric increased T1 and T2 signals in the medial dorsal thalamus, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal region [Figure 1]a.
The study also found that the periaqueductal gray area of the brain that produces oxytocin was less active in male voles that drank alone.
Mu-opioid receptors exist in highest concentrations in presynaptic neurons in the periaqueductal gray region and spinal cord and have high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphins.
16] Perception of depression, anxiety and stress also share the same pathophysiological pathways as pain which facilitate the central modulation of the pain response, in the periaqueductal grey, amygdala and hypothalamus.
The researchers found that within 49 thousandths of a second of a recorded cry being played, the periaqueductal gray " an area deep in the midbrain that has long been linked to urgent, do-or-die behaviours " had blazed to attention, twice as fast as it reacted to dozens of other audio clips tested.
17-19) Previous research has indicated a relation between the CnF and the central areas involved in cardiovascular modulation including the RVLM, NTS, periaqueductal gray matter, and parabrachial/Kolliker-Fuse complex.
This theory is supported by evidence of iron deposition in the periaqueductal gray mater in patients with a long history of migraine (28).
These areas include the cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord, thalamus, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and amygdala (22).
They are primarily located in the ventral periaqueductal central gray (PAG) area of the medulla and brainstem (1).
Essa rede complexa inclui rede motora/pre-motora cortical (incluindo cortex motor primario, area motora suplementar, cortex cingulado anterior), regioes subcorticais (como ganglia basal e talamo), bem como estruturas do tronco, incluindo a substancia cinzenta periaqueductal, a substancia nigra, a formacao reticular e o conjunto de moto neuronios.
Passive mobilization may stimulate the SNS and activate the descending pain inhibitory mechanism which increases sympathetic activity and decreases pain due to the release of noradrenaline from the dorsal periaqueductal grey area.