The degree of tooth mobility is dependent on quantitative factors (Surface area of periodontal ligament
attachment) and qualitative factors (Biophysical properties of the periodontium).
In 1998, Liou and Huang introduced the concept of distraction osteogenesis in tooth movement and termed it as periodontal ligament
A flexible splint allows physiologic tooth movement and thus helps in healing of periodontal ligament
as opposed to a rigid splint that hinders physiologic tooth movement and leads to pulp necrosis, root resorption or ankylosis to the surrounding bone.6,7 A more precise classification of dental trauma splints classifies them into three categories namely, a)Flexible splints: that allow slightly more mobility than the uninjured tooth, b)Semi-rigid splints: that allow mobility equal to uninjured teeth and c)Rigid splints: that allow mobility less than the uninjured tooth.8
A few detached bony fragments were also found scattered among fibers of periodontal ligament
in specimen from group A and C.
We examined the effect of initial tooth movement and stress distribution of periodontal ligament
(PDL) and tooth root for providing the lingual technique with valuable information to achieve the best orthodontic result.
Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with periodontitis have higher probability of developing RA.7 Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues caused by specific microorganisms, mostly aerobic and gram-negative bacteria and leads to progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament
and alveolar bone.8 The primary clinical features of periodontitis include gingival inflammation, periodontal pocketing, and alveolar bone loss which may end up with loosening of teeth and tooth loss.
Therefore, a storage medium is required to preserve the vitality of the periodontal ligament
cells (PDL) during extra-alveolar time.6
While stem cells for regenerative therapy have largely been used in patients with leukemia and lymphoma, stem cells show enormous potential for regenerating alveolar bone, periodontal ligament
, pulp, dentin, and enamel.
The anterior maxilla is the most traumatized region and the most accident prone age of trauma is between 8 and 12 years old when the incisors are erupted, and the periodontal ligament
has the minimal resistance to the external forces [1-3].
This force stimulates bone remodelling in the surrounding tissue, namely, the periodontal ligament
(PDL) and the alveolar bone, resulting in the bone removal in the direction of the tooth movement and bone apposition in the opposite direction (Figure 1).
The periodontal ligament
(PDL) system connects the tooth with the alveolar bone .
Two preferred treatments during this time frame were to either boil the extracted tooth to eradicate any disease process in the tooth (caries) or to scrape all the debris from the root prior to replantation (8), which would occupy 30-60 mins and destroy the essential periodontal ligament
and its cells.