Illocutions are expressed openly; perlocutions
may not be admitted' as such" (125-26).
Austin's theory of language as a mode of social action and his emphasis on the total speech situation, Keir Elam also argues that dramatic discourse is "a network of complementary and conflicting illocutions and perlocutions
: in a word, linguistic interaction, not so much descriptive as performative" (i59).
, How To do Things With Proverbs." In
Austin's famed treatise, discussed by Rokem, on what we do and perform when we use words, focuses on ordinary language locutions and perlocutions
as though theater, if relevant at all, were a mere extension of ordinary life and its speech acts but not the model for those ordinary acts.
The former establishes dialogical relations "in saying something," while perlocutions achieve effects "by saying something" (Austin 121).
Threatening perlocutions structurally (rather than semantically) break with conventions so that they can be repeated (148, 149).
However, as performatives, illocutions and perlocutions are susceptible to failures or "infelicities." (18) (B).
e) Fourth-order entities: illocutions, and presumably also perlocutions
: How to Do Things with Proverbs," Wise Words: Essays on the Proverb.
Dummett could as well have invoked Austin's (1962) distinction between illocutions and perlocutions
arguing, announcing), and the notion of a perlocution
as a purposive form of illocution, meant to achieve some end-effect (i.e.
That is, one = `property ([f.sub.i])', (11) him/her/it = `spatial entity ([x.sub.i])', the X-ing (where X is a verb), or, presumably, it/that, = `SoA ([e.sub.i])', so = `possible fact ([X.sub.i])', and this/that or this/that N, where N is an illocutionary noun = `illocution (or perlocution