The occurrence of sequelae may be associated with several factors, such as the age of the child at the time of trauma, the degree of root resorption of the injured deciduous tooth, the type and extent of the injury, and the stage of development of the permanent tooth
germ (Altun, Cehreli, Guven, & Acikel, 2009; Carvalho, Jacomo, & Campos, 2010; Amorim, Estrela, & Costa, 2011; Gungor, Pucman, & Uysal, 2011; Costa et al., 2016).
The factors that determine the effect of injury in the permanent teeth include age of the patient, developmental stage of the tooth germ, and anatomic proximity of the primary tooth to the permanent tooth
germ and the magnitude and direction of force.
The permanent tooth
extraction reasons were recorded excluding third molars.
Flowmetric values have been used to accurately identify the reestablishment of vitality in traumatized teeth.6-8 Data on PBF values in children with traumatized immature permanent maxillary incisors is scarce, with two traumatized immature teeth in a single patient.9 Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion on immature permanent tooth
PBF values during a 6-month post-trauma period and to compare the accuracy of cold tests on pulp sensibility of traumatized teeth with that of electric pulp tests (EPT).
This process serves two important functions: It creates an eruption path for the permanent tooth
to guide it into its proper position.
Furthermore, during the regenerative endodontic treatment, a #15 K-file was used to probe the apical foramen and an obvious sense of friction was found, so we judged the tooth in this case belongs to mature permanent tooth
. Apical bleeding was induced into the root canal, leading to a suitable environment for pulp regeneration with an enrichment of host endogenous stem cells and growth factors in a bioactive scaffold.
Most baby teeth fall out on their own without much coaxing, but occasionally a stubborn one must be pulled so that the permanent tooth
doesn't start growing in an awkward direction and become impacted.
Generally, baby teeth fall out on their own but, occasionally, a stubborn one needs to be pulled so that the permanent tooth
does not start growing in an awkward direction and become impacted.
It is performed by measuring the mesiodistal width of each permanent tooth
excluding second and third molars.
Specifically, Haavikko  published a method, based on the evaluation of the development of six stages of the crown and six stages of the root and published median ages with 90% confidence intervals (CI) for each permanent tooth
from upper and lower jaw.
A fixation period of 4 weeks has been adviced.4 Treatment of trauamatized immature permanent teeth is especially complicated due to the potential harm to the permanent tooth
When a 'baby tooth' refuses to budge and does not get out of the way early enough, a 'permanent tooth
' will grow instead where it can, and not necessarily in line or in the proper area.