# perpendicular

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Related to perpendicular: perpendicular slope

## per·pen·dic·u·lar

(pûr′pən-dĭk′yə-lər)
1. Mathematics Intersecting at or forming right angles.
2. Being at right angles to the horizontal; vertical. See Synonyms at vertical.
3. often Perpendicular Of or relating to a style of English Gothic architecture of the 1300s and 1400s, characterized by the use of fan vaulting and broad windows with many mullions.
In a perpendicular position.
n.
1. Mathematics A line or plane perpendicular to a given line or plane.
2. A perpendicular position.
3. A device, such as a plumb line, that is used in marking the vertical from a given point.
4. A vertical or nearly vertical line or plane.

[Middle English perpendiculer, from Old French, from Latin perpendiculāris, from perpendiculum, plumb line, from perpendere, to weigh carefully : per-, per- + pendere, to weigh; see (s)pen- in Indo-European roots.]

per′pen·dic′u·lar′i·ty (-lăr′ĭ-tē) n.

## perpendicular

(ˌpɜːpənˈdɪkjʊlə)
1. (Mathematics) Also: normal at right angles to a horizontal plane
2. (Architecture) denoting, relating to, or having the style of Gothic architecture used in England during the 14th and 15th centuries, characterized by tracery having vertical lines, a four-centred arch, and fan vaulting
3. upright; vertical
n
4. (Mathematics) geometry a line or plane perpendicular to another
5. (Tools) any instrument used for indicating the vertical line through a given point
6. (Mountaineering) mountaineering a nearly vertical face
[C14: from Latin perpendiculāris, from perpendiculum a plumb line, from per- through + pendēre to hang]
perpendicularity n
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

## per•pen•dic•u•lar

(ˌpɜr pənˈdɪk yə lər)

1. vertical; straight up and down; upright.
2. meeting a given line or surface at right angles.
3. maintaining a standing or upright position; standing up.
4. having a sharp pitch or slope; steep.
5. (cap.) of or pertaining to the last phase of English Gothic architecture, prevailing from the late 14th to early 16th century, characterized by predominantly vertical tracery and the use of the fan vault.
n.
6. a perpendicular line, plane, or position.
7. an instrument for indicating the vertical line from any point.
[1350–1400; Middle English perpendiculer(e) < (Anglo-French, Old French) < Latin perpendiculāris vertical =perpendicul(um) plumb line (see perpend2, -i-, -cule2) + -āris -ar1]
per`pen•dic`u•lar′i•ty, n.

## per·pen·dic·u·lar

(pûr′pən-dĭk′yə-lər)
Intersecting at or forming a right angle or right angles.
Noun
A line or plane that is perpendicular to a given line or plane.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
 Noun 1 perpendicular - a straight line at right angles to another linestraight line - a line traced by a point traveling in a constant direction; a line of zero curvature; "the shortest distance between two points is a straight line" 2 perpendicular - a Gothic style in 14th and 15th century England; characterized by vertical lines and a four-centered (Tudor) arch and fan vaultingGothic architecture, Gothic - a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed archesTudor architecture - a style of English-Gothic architecture popular during the Tudor period; characterized by half-timbered houses 3 perpendicular - a cord from which a metal weight is suspended pointing directly to the earth's center of gravity; used to determine the vertical from a given pointplumb linecord - a line made of twisted fibers or threads; "the bundle was tied with a cord"lead line, sounding line - (nautical) plumb line for determining depthplumb, plumb bob, plummet - the metal bob of a plumb lineplumb rule - a plumb line attached to a narrow board 4 perpendicular - an extremely steep faceface - a vertical surface of a building or cliff Adj. 1 perpendicular - intersecting at or forming right angles; "the axes are perpendicular to each other"oblique - slanting or inclined in direction or course or position--neither parallel nor perpendicular nor right-angled; "the oblique rays of the winter sun"; "acute and obtuse angles are oblique angles"; "the axis of an oblique cone is not perpendicular to its base"parallel - being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting; "parallel lines never converge"; "concentric circles are parallel"; "dancers in two parallel rows" 2 perpendicular - at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line; "a vertical camera angle"; "the monument consists of two vertical pillars supporting a horizontal slab"; "measure the perpendicular height"verticalsteep - having a sharp inclination; "the steep attic stairs"; "steep cliffs"straight - having no deviations; "straight lines"; "straight roads across the desert"; "straight teeth"; "straight shoulders" 3 perpendicular - extremely steep; "the great perpendicular face of the cliff"steep - having a sharp inclination; "the steep attic stairs"; "steep cliffs"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.

## perpendicular

1. the perpendicular wall of sandstone
2. a narrow, exposed beach and perpendicular cliffs
3. at right angles, at 90 degrees The left wing dipped until it was perpendicular to the ground.
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002

## perpendicular

At right angles to the horizon or to level ground:
Translations
عَمودي، مُتَعامِد
kolmýsráznýsvislý
lodret
merőleges
lóîréttur
statmenaistatmenas
perpendikulārs, vertikāls, statenisks
normalvinkelrät

## perpendicular

[ˌpɜːpənˈdɪkjʊləʳ]
1. (Math) → perpendicular
2. (Archit) perteneciente al estilo gótico de los siglos XIV y XV en Gran Bretaña
B. N
to be out of (the) perpendicularsalir de la perpendicular, no estar a plomo
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

## perpendicular

[ˌpɜːrpənˈdɪkjʊlər]
to be perpendicular to sth → être perpendiculaire à qch
n
the perpendicular →
to restore sth to the perpendicular →
The pillar had been restored to the perpendicular → Le pilier avait été remis à la verticale.
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

## perpendicular

senkrecht (to zu); the wall is not quite perpendicular to the ceiling; a perpendicular cliff
(Archit) → perpendikular
nSenkrechte f; to drop a perpendicularein Lot fällen; to be out of perpendicularnicht im Lot sein
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007

## perpendicular

[ˌpɜːpnˈdɪkjʊləʳ]
1. adj (gen) (Math) → perpendicolare; (cliff) → a picco
2. n
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995

## perpendicular

standing, rising etc straight upwards; vertical. a perpendicular cliff.
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.

## perpendicular

a. perpendicular.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
References in classic literature ?
Like most old fashioned pulpits, it was a very lofty one, and since a regular stairs to such a height would, by its long angle with the floor, seriously contract the already small area of the chapel, the architect, it seemed, had acted upon the hint of Father Mapple, and finished the pulpit without a stairs, substituting a perpendicular side ladder, like those used in mounting a ship from a boat at sea.
Accordingly we now commenced it by descending the almost perpendicular side of a steep and narrow gorge, bristling with a thick growth of reeds.
The fuci and llianas grew in rigid perpendicular lines, due to the density of the element which had produced them.
Suddenly, out of the companion would appear a tall, dark figure, bareheaded, with a short white beard of a perpendicular cut, very visible in the dark - Captain S-, disturbed in his reading down below by the frightful bounding and lurching of the ship.
They then abandoned the perpendicular line, and made a sharp turn westward toward Ghat, guided, with difficulty, by the Touaregs.
And in the present instance, all this was heightened by the sight of the two officers of the strange ship, leaning over the side, by the perpendicular ladder of nailed cleets there, and swinging towards him a pair of tastefully-ornamented man-ropes; for at first they did not seem to bethink them that a one-legged man must be too much of a cripple to use their sea bannisters.
On the north side of the Mohawk, and at about fifty miles from its mouth, is a mountain which, as we have already said, juts, in a nearly perpendicular promontory, into the bed of the river; its inclination is sufficient to admit of its receiving the name of a nose.
Every side of your hexagon, of which you will determine the length in proportion to the dimensions taken upon the place, will be divided into two parts and upon the middle point you will elevate a perpendicular towards the center of the polygon, which will equal in length the sixth part of the side.
The first is a perpendicular cascade of twenty feet, after which there is a swift descent for a mile, between islands of hard black rock, to another pitch of eight feet divided by two rocks.
At a little distance up the river rose mighty perpendicular bluffs, from the very base of which the great river seemed to rise.
He had not to deal with a perpendicular wall, but with one which sloped away beneath him.
Some leaned over at angles as great as forty-five degrees, though the majority towered straight up from the soft and almost perpendicular earth walls.

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