Many scholars have interpreted, with good reason, her embrace and advocacy of education and citizenship (and testimony against the syncretic peyotist
religion) as assimilationist.
Episcopalian Albert Hensley, who left not one but two autobiographies behind (Brumble).
Even nowadays, entheogens are consumed in the rituals of the peyotist
Native American Church (Stewart 1987), as well as by ayahuasca-using syncretic religions such as Santo Daime and Uniao do Vegetal (Dobkin de Rios 1971).
Oliver Lamere, a well-known Peyotist
, was elected to the advisory board.
Springer, a Peyotist
from the Iowa tribe, stated that his tribe uses the little red mescal bean as an ornament, and they call it "red medicine." He has a vest with the beans on it for buttons, and when he dresses up he puts it on in addition to his leather leggings.
In 1927, Kiowa Jim Tongkeamah, a peyotist
and "dance road" enthusiast, lost a son, who, before death, incurred a near-death experience in which he claimed to have entered Heaven; he begged his father to convert to Christianity.
In contemporary times, themes of authenticity and tradition abound: peyotist
, Christian, and traditional symbols form a "synthetic collage" of intersecting spiritual paths that often lead to division and opposition among Kiowa people, while the theme of "respect for diversity" is seen as the foremost virtue.
Smith, our understandings of (1) all Indian religious freedoms, (2) the legality of Native American Church of North America peyotist
practices, and (3) historically sound uses of Public Law 280, were swept away by a conservative activist decision handed down by the United States Supreme Court written by Justice Scalia.(5) Without reviewing the particulars of this landmark decision suffice it to say that this vitally important Supreme Court case should be in any comprehensive legal sourcebook having a section on either criminal law or religious freedom.(6) The Smith case does not appear in Spaeth's deskbook.
(18) That "[p]laintiffs call[ed] their practice religious, call[ed] themselves peyotists
, ha[d] included 'Native American Church' in their name, ...
Even before this time, American Indians, decimated and robbed of practically everything, were making desperate attempts to hold on to what was left of their native traditions, which included such late developments as the Ghost Dances (whence the catastrophic Battle of Wounded Knee in 1890), the "Shakers" in the Pacific Northwest (unrelated to the New England followers of Mother Ann Lee), and the peyotists
(later incorporated as the Native American Church) in the Southwest.
For example, it is estimated that approximately 50% of Navajos are peyotists
. Not surprisingly, we see Native American Church associated jewelry being produced by Navajo silver smiths, mostly in sterling, but sometimes in German silver.
Now, the 130 or so American members of a Brazilian faith called Uniao do Vegetal (UDV) want what an estimated 300,000 Native American "peyotists
" have: the right to possess and consume their psychedelic sacrament without fear of arrest.