Other oral biguanides, phenformin
and buformin, were introduced in subsequent years.
Lack of effect of phenformin
, pyridinolcarbamate combined with a decalcifying agent, and an onion-garlic mixture on growth and necrosis of aortic atherosclerosis in ballooned swine.
had problems, though; it occasionally caused lactic acidosis and death and so was pulled off the US market in 1977.
McCarty MF: Homologous physiologicaleffects of phenformin
and chromium picolinate.
While substances including phenformin
and glibenclamide metabolite were detected in the patient's urine specimen, a sample of the product's remnants was also found to contain phenformin
and glibenclamide upon testing by the Government Laboratory.
It has been demonstrated in vitro that stimulation of AMPK by metformin, phenformin
, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) inhibits ENaC conductance in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, and polarized renal epithelial cells [19,20].
Alessi, "Activity of LKB1 and AMPK-related kinases in skeletal muscle: effects of contraction, phenformin
, and AICAR," American Journal of Physiology--Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
However, influenced by the side effects of phenformin
, metformin was once suggested to exit the market.
One in 4,000 patients taking phenformin
develops lactic acidosis (J.
It has been indicated that some specific hypoglycaemic medications such as glyburide, phenformin
and tolazamide decrease endogenous content of CoQ10.
insulin, tolbutamide, phenformin
, troglitazone, rosigitazone and repaglinide, are the mainstay of diabetes treatments and are effective in controlling hyperglycemia.
dagger]) One RCT of the 7 (N=204; 6% of total patients) used the biguanide phenformin
rather than metformin.