Sewers are a breeding site for Phlebotomus
sand flies, which can reach abundant population levels (10).
The epidemiological pattern of the disease is similar to the neighboring areas of Iran, Afghanistan and Rajasthan in India.4 Sand fly Phlebotomus
spp in Europe, North Africa, Middle East, and Asia or of the Lutzomyia spp in the Southern USA to Northern Argentina are vectors of disease.1 Clinical manifestations are cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis.
Leishmaniasis, disi kum sinegi (Phlebotomus
ve Lutzomyia) sineklerinin kan emmesi esnasinda insana bulastirdigi bir hastaliktir.
The sand fly (Phlebotomus
) is the vector for transmission.
Laboratory testing of the insect repellents IR3535 ((R)) and DEET against Phlebotomus
mascittii and P duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae).
sergenti) and from human's lesion as mammalian host in the same region.
According to the World Health Organization leishmaniasis is one of the most serious diseases caused by protozoan parasites, with approximately 12 million cases reported in the world.1 It is caused by more than 20 Leishmania species which are transmitted by hematophagous sandflies of the Phlebotomus
genus in the Old World and the Lutzomyia genus in the New World, and more than 90 sandfly species are identified as probable vectors.2 The disease occurs in varying presentations, from the self-limited and even self-healing cutaneous forms to fatal systemic disease.
It is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Phlebotomus
(sand fly) and is seen mostly in developing countries.
Leishmaniasis, which can present as a fixed, indolent, longstanding ulcer, is transmitted by the bite of the Phlebotomus
or Lutzomyia sandfly, which is not endemic to North America.
It is transmitted between humans and other mammalian hosts by the bite of infected female sand flies of the genus Phlebotomus
or Lutzomyia (order: Diptera, family: Phlebotominae/Psychodidae) in the Old World and New World, respectively .
There are more than 900 species and subspecies of sand flies worldwide  and the presence of at least six genera, Phlebotomus
(Rondani and Berte, 1840), Sergentomyia (Franca and Parrot, 1920), and Chinius (Leng 1987) in the old world and Brumptomyia (Franca and Parrot, 1921), Lutzomyia (Franca, 1924), and Warileya (Hertig, 1948) in the new world has been accepted by most specialists such as Bates et al.
Treatment using a salivary extract of Phlebotomus
papatasi sandflies improved clinical signs, reduced the disease activity, and modulated dendritic cell (DC) and Th17 cell functions in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis .