Frederick Engels claimed that justice was "social phlogiston
." (40) In trying to make irreducible moral properties explain social regularities just as chemists before Lavoisier tried to make phlogiston
explain combustion, nonreductionism fails just as phlogiston
Insofar as one wishes to talk of my analysis in terms of being a reduction, it would be a retentive, and not an eliminativist, reduction: the target phenomenon, detached statements, is to be retained, and not eliminated like phlogiston
10 Roget; Paul 9 sturgeon; of species A8 Smith; Sheridan 7 Phlogiston
; 6 Netherlands; the of Alexander Willem-Prince 5 Scuttle; 4 Kentucky; 3 Mars; 2 Requiem; 1 ANSWERS:
At the time, chemistry was still in its infancy--barely a generation removed from theories rooted in flows of phlogiston
. Over the course of the next half-century, however, researchers such as Justus von Liebig, Jean-Baptiste Boussingault, and Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert significantly advanced the world's understanding of agricultural processes.
Others, such as "atman" (nonphysical soul) or phlogiston
do not name reducible aggregations.
Absolute space, absolute time, phlogiston
, and gemmules were at one time deemed essential; more recendy, dark matter and dark energy have been added.The cosmological constant (A) has come, gone, and come back.
In this short time, it has been explained as phlogiston
, a mysterious fluid created by fire, and as caloric, a material fluid flowing from hot to cold.
Disappointed AmEx to the phlogiston
, or make up your own (using "to").
" Priestley, though, didn't recognize the gas as an element, calling it "dephlogisticated air," in light of the prevailing belief that flammable materials contained phlogiston
, a substance without colour, odour, taste, or weight that was given off during combustion.
Here we learn of the contributions of Boyle, Hooke, Mayow, and Becher in solving the riddles of combustion and respiration, as well as introducing the first theory of chemistry: phlogiston
. The fifth, and longest, section of the book is devoted to the chemical revolution that occurred during the late 18th century.
(44) I have argued that the very precariousness of chemistry--a field perched between the phlogiston
and oxygen theories, between magical and rational explanations, between the machine-like logic of combinatorics and the anthropomorphic theory of affinity--makes it into a particularly fitting allegory of the poetical model Schlegel develops.
Constant changes in theories of etiology and cure no more condemn psychiatric science than outdated theories of phlogiston
or ether discredit chemistry or physics.