In addition, oxytocin, an endocrine hormone released during and shortly after birth, has been linked to maternal behavior in mothers (Pedersen and Prange, 1979; Pedersen et al., 1982; Keverne and Kendrick, 1992) and identified as an indicator of maternal success in phocid
seals (Robinson, 2014).
Internal-control DNA consisted of a plasmid constructed by inserting a 357 base pair DNA fragment of Phocid
herpesvirus 1 gB gene into vector pUC57 (designed in-house at St.
Foraging effort, food intake and lactation performance depend on maternal mass in a small phocid
Simultaneous isolation, amplification, and detection of a standard amount of phocid
herpesvirus were used for internal control of inhibition (10).
seals, neonatal mortality rates were estimated at 14-23% in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the western United Kingdom (Baker 1984), and as averaging 3.8% over a 10-y period in Southern Elephant Seals (Mirounga leonina) on Marion Island, based on recovered carcasses (Pistorius and others 2001).
The searches were performed without language restriction and used the key words "seal," "Phoca," "phocid
," "pinniped," "otaria," "otariid," "otariidae," "Arctocephalus," Zalophus," "Callorhinus," "fur seal," "sea lion," "marine," or "marine mammal," along with "influenza," "orthomyxovirus," "zoonoses," "zoonosis," "zoonotic," "H1," "H3," "H4," "H5," or "H7" to find reports on cases of influenza in seals or seal strains found in man.
These later surveys focused on the restoration of northern fur seal and sea otter stocks and management of cetacean and phocid
(earless) seals, maternal care consists of a short intense period of lactation during which the pup suckles while the mother fasts ashore.
1993 and references therein); among air-breathing tetrapods, only phocid
seals and toothed whales compete with Emperors for the same prey species at depths below [approximately equals] 200 m.
"Although the number of animals studied is small, the data warrant the conclusion that seals can be protected from phocid
distemper [or CDV] by vaccination with certain inactivated CDV vaccines," they write in a Jan.
Genetically identified stomach contents have included cetaceans and phocids
; however, a histological analysis of ingested tissue indicated scavenging rather than live captures in the case of all cetacean and some phocid
samples, and the evidence was inconclusive for some freshly ingested phocid
tissue (Sigler et al., 2006).