As a totally passive methodology, fetal phonocardiography
(fPCG) signal collected from mother's abdomen using a microphone transducer was proposed about ten years ago to monitor FHR .
Cheema, "Heart sounds classification using feature extraction of phonocardiography
signal", International Journal of Computer Application, vol.
Bukkapatnam, "A low-cost, portable, high-throughput wireless sensor system for phonocardiography
applications," Sensors, Vol.
In literature, there are two types of studies found, some studies used signal recording to identify CAD symptoms, for instance, electrocardiograph (ECG), photoplethysmography (PPG), and phonocardiography
(PCG), and other studies used clinical parameters like age, blood pressure, and smoking habit to classify CAD patients.
Among the topics are phonocardiography
: recording heart sounds and murmurs, measuring glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice, neurology: peripheral nerves and muscles, pediatric physiological measurements, and rehabilitation.
By the end of Level 10, students are reading and understanding the meaning of words like osteoporosis, thyroidectomy, physiotherapy, phonocardiography
[1.] Kovacs F, Horvath C, Balogh AT, Hosszu G (2011) Extended noninvasive fetal monitoring by detailed analysis of data measured with phonocardiography
. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 1(58): 64-70.
as a monitor of cardiac performance during anesthesia.
The noninvasive evaluation of cardiac performance utilizing systolic time intervals, phonocardiography
, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler echocardiography has also documented sub clinical left ventricular dysfunction in diabetic individuals.
The FECG can also be acquired for FHR using surface electrodes on the mother's abdomen, whilst the fetal magneto-cardiogram (FMCG) is detectable using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers and fetal phonocardiography
(FPCG) also allows the heart sounds to be detected and hence FHR can be calculated (CROWE et al., 1995).
, recording of vibroacoustic (fPCG) signals from the maternal abdominal surface, may become an important alternative to fCTG .
, and pressures and waveforms of brachial and ankle arteries were measured.