Shagass, "Differentiation between anxiety and depression by the photically
activated electroencephalogram," The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.
Wolff et al., "Mapping brain activity on the verge of a photically
induced generalized tonic-clonic seizure," Epilepsia, vol.
evoked responses in visual cortex units during sleep and waking.
tonsa, phot ically stimulated escape responses differ from hydrodynamically stimulated responses mainly in the longer latencies of photically stimulated responses and in the increased number of power strokes, even when the stimulus is near threshold; these factors result in longer escape jumps covering greater distances.
Examples of escape trajectories during photically stimulated escape jumps are shown in Figure 2A.
One of the salient differences we found between the photically and mechanically triggered escape behaviors in this species was the substantially larger minimum reaction time of the former (29 ms vs.
Both in Drosophila and several annelids, the system of giant fibers (axons) is involved in both photically and mechanically triggered reactions.
Based on these observations, he proposed that midday larval release, rapid settlement, and photonegative behavior at settlement allowed larvae of tropical ascidians to choose photically
appropriate settlement sites during times when light stress would be most intense.
Aiptasia feeds by capturing small organisms such as zooplankton and invertebrate larvae from the water column and, when in photically
appropriate environments, via photosynthesis of symbiotic zooxanthellae (Ruppert and Fox 1988).