Two bioassays were performed in an acclimatized room at 26 [+ or -] 2[degrees] C; 50 [+ or -] 10% and 12-hour photophase
. Insects had been bred at Embrapa Maize and Sorghum and the breeding ofD.
A colony of Diaphorina citri was maintained under controlled laboratory conditions (28 [degrees]C [+ or -] 2 [degrees]C; 60% [+ or -] 10% relative humidity [RH]; 14-h photophase
), using seedlings of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (Rutaceae) as the host plant (Nava et al., 2007).
armigera caterpillars grown on an artificial diet (GREENE et al., 1976) were used in the Entomology Laboratory of the Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), in an air-conditioned room (25 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, 60 [+ or -] 10% relative humidity and photophase
of 12 hours).
aerialis was kept in the Laboratory of Entomology/Alternative Control of CECA/UFAL in climatic conditions at 26 [+ or -] 1 [degrees]C, 60 [+ or -] 10% RH, and 12 h photophase
No adults emerged at 12 h as the scotophase advanced to photophase
. Adult emergence reached its peak at day 6 (Fig.
Plates were then covered with plastic film, punctured and incubated in BOD (25[degrees] [+ or -] 1[degrees]C, 86 [+ or -] 2% and 12 hour photophase
) for seven days.
TABLE 1: Duration and viability of Montandoniola confusa nymphal stage and offspring sex ration when reared on the wild prey Gynaikothrips ficorum or eggs of two factitious prey under controlled conditions of 25 [+ or -] 0.8[degrees]C, 63 [+ or -] 8.8% RH and 12h photophase
. TABELA 1: Duracao e viabilidade ninfal de Montandoniola confusa e razao sexual quando criados na presa natural Gynaikothrips ficorum e ovos de duas presas alternativas sob condicoes controladas de 25 [+ or -] 0,8[degrees]C, 63 [+ or -] 8,8% de UR e 12h de fotofase.
All spiders were recorded in photophase
first and then in scotophase.
The experiments were conducted in a climate-controlled room (25 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C, 70 [+ or -] 10% RH and a 12-h photophase
) at the Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology of the Goiano Federal Institute, Urutai Campus, Brazil.
magna was hatched at the South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, China, and stocked in the laboratory with temperature at 25 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, pH at 7.0 [+ or -] 0.3 (average [+ or -] standard deviation), and photophase
for 14 hours with illumination from 3000-4500 lx and scotophase for 10 hours.
Parasitism characteristic of eggs of Helicoverpa armigera from different ages by Trichogramma pretiosum at a constant density of 30 eggs per female (24 hours of exposure) (25 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C, 70 [+ or -] 10% RH and photophase
of 14 hours).
The bioassay evaluations were performed under the same laboratory condition for 12h photophase