Color vision in vertebrates is usually achieved through the interaction of various photopigments
in the cone cells found in the retina.
Opsin genes, cone photopigments
, colour vision, and colour blindness.
Nathans, "Opsin genes, cone photopigments
, color vision, and color blindness," in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K.
It requires at least three photopigments
of well separated spectral classes.
Apart from nourishing the region, the choroidal circulatory system serves as a heat sink which removes generated metabolic heat due to light photons strike on the photopigments
and the melanin of the RPE .
The transitional zone between these two retinal areas is populated by coexpressing cones that express both S-cone and M-cone photopigments
In addition to a MBM, support for a chemical compass involving a class of specialized photopigments
forming radical-pair intermediates sensitive to the axis of the magnetic field, comes from theoretical and empirical studies, and is thought to be mediated by the visual transduction pathway (Ritz et al.
Spectral sensitivity curves recorded from small VE photoreceptors show 2 peaks, one at 360 nm and a second at 520 nm, indicating that both opsins form functional photopigments
and that the small photoreceptors are sensitive to both UV and visible light and therefore are classified as UV-VIS cells.
Thus, measureable properties of cells such as cell population, DNA, chemical properties, energy, and photopigments
will be changing according to cell growth rate.
The cell bodies of rod (purple) and cone (red) photoreceptors are in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and the photoreceptor outer segments (OS) contain the photopigments
that absorb light.
responsible for converting light into temporal information are assembled in a family of nonimage forming opsins named melanopsins, which were firstly discovered in Xenopus laevis melanophores , with subsequent description of orthologues in the retina of all vertebrate classes [22-25], and extraocular tissues of some species .
Protanopia and deuteranopia result when long wavelength (L) photopigments
(red) and middle wavelength (M) photopigments
(green) are missing, respectively.