"The HMI images have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow us to follow the movement of photospheric
granules on the Sun's visible surface," said Bjoern Loeptien, scientist at the Max Planck Institute and first author of the paper.
'We believe, these UK-sized photospheric
magnetic plasma swirls are also very promising candidates not just for energy but also for mass transportation between the lower and upper layers of the solar atmosphere.
signatures imprinted on the [gamma]-ray burst spectra," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.
Ultimately, the energy that heats the solar corona and accelerates the solar wind comes from the magnetic energy built up by the tangling photospheric
Since the density of the corona ([10.sup.8-9][cm.sup.-3]) is much smaller than that of the photosphere ([10.sup.17][cm.sup.-3]), the thermal energy density of the corona (although it is 200-300 times hotter than the photosphere) is negligibly small compared with the photospheric
Primavera et al., "An analysis of the vertical photospheric
velocity field as observed by Themis," Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol.
As a side note, we can calculate the photospheric
temperature by solving Equation (4) for T,
plasma motions are particularly interesting as they have impact on the footpoints of magnetic loops and could be directly affecting the magnetic configuration throughout all the solar atmosphere.
Young also believed that the polarization was due to the scattering of photospheric
light by small particles.
These spots are surrounded by bright plages, emission regions that coincide with (and closely resemble) the bright photospheric
faculae usually seen foreshortened near the solar limb in white light.
The most recent determinations of the solar photospheric
heavy-element abundances (among which ) have indicated, in fact, that the solar metallicity is lower by 30 to 40% than previous measurements .
 used the SIR inversion code to invert spectropolarimetric data of the Fe I 6301.5 and 6302.5 [Angstrom] photospheric
lines observed with the Advanced Spectropolarimeter (Sacramento Peak).