Microtubules formed arrays in the mitotic phase, including a preprophase band (PPB), the spindle apparatus at metaphase and anaphase, and the phragmoplast at telophase, in the CK treatment (Fig.
UV-B radiation caused chromosomal aberrations and induced abnormal microtubule arrays, including an asymmetric PPB, asymmetric spindle, and defective phragmoplast.
When the radicle protruded at 72h of imbibition, a well organized cortical microtubule cytoskeleton was observed (Figure 3C), when several mitotic microtubule arrays were observed as pre-prophase bands, mitotic spindle and phragmoplast
After chromosomes move to poles in anaphase, the phragmoplast mediates cell plate formation that completes cytokinesis.
After chromosomes move to opposite poles, [gamma]-Tubulin migrates from polar/distal surfaces of reforming nuclei to the proximal surfaces where it generates the opposing arrays of phragmoplast microtubules (Fig.
This integration becomes realized by the phragmoplast
, which becomes etsablished by the persisting spindle apparatus together with a dense ER-network between the daughter nuclei after mitosis.
As in other marchantioids, microtubules radiate from the telophase nuclei and an interzonal phragmoplast develops (not shown) but no wall is deposited.
Microtubules emanating from the nuclei give rise to a well-developed phragmoplast in the interzone (Fig.
Interzonal micrombules, which proliferate from proximal surfaces of reforming nuclei and plastids, forma conspicuous phragmoplast
Similarly, these advanced charophytes exhibit a distinctly land-plant ("embryophytic") pattern of mitotic and cytokinetic events, including, an open mitosis with a persistent, interzonal spindle (the daughter mitotic nuclei remaining separated at a distance) and a phragmoplast
(spindle fiber remnants perpendicular to the cytokinetic plane and associated golgi-derived vesicles; el.
microtubules: nonmembranous tubules about 25 nanometers in diameter and of indefinite length; located in the cytoplasm in a nondividing eukaryotic cell; form the meiotic and mitotic spindles and the phragmoplast
in a dividing cell.
hours, large, faint phragmoplasts
and unusually large daughter nuclei