191); early hackers were known as "phone phreaks
" in the 1970s because they attempted to make free telephone calls (Coleman, 2012).
Steinmetz correctly takes a broad view of hacking, encompassing early assembly language programmers working tirelessly to optimize code, phone "phreaks
" exploiting telephone systems, security consultants, pranksters, free and open software developers, and myriad other branches.
There was 1992's Sneakers, which took some of its inspiration from real-world phone phreaks
John "Cap'n Crunch" Draper and Josef "Joybubbles" Engressia.
(16) Chris Baraniuk, Whatever Happened to the Phone Phreaks
?, The Atlantic (Feb.
Hackers are no longer phreaks
or society's fringe dwellers.
The phrase "information superhighway" was preceded by a century in an AT&T ad announcing "a highway of communication: Computer hacking grew out of the culture of "phone phreaks
"--those early-1970s technological obsessives (Steve Jobs among them) who figured out how to manipulate the phone system to place free phone calls.
Best bet for: Phreaks
who want to keep their noses clean Tuition: $7,320/$14,970
Readers of a certain age might remember the "phone phreaks
" of the 1960s and '70s who deviously manipulated telephone technology in order to make free long distance calls, disclose American Telephone and Telegraph secrets and, in general, drive AT&T crazy.
From that venue they have brought in national and international acts such as Mark E (Jisco Music), Charles Webster, inset, (Miso, Furry Phreaks
), John Daly (Feel, Wave, Drumpoet Community), FishgoDeep (Go Deep, Defected), The Unabombers (Elektrons, Electric Chair), and Max Essa (Bear Funk) to name but a few.
In the years that followed, Engressia found like-minded "phreaks
= phone + freak) with whom to share notes and enjoy a sense of community.
There were also some repetitive entries--for example, Crackers Lamers and Phreaks
, Hackers Crackers and Hacking, and Phreaking, which could have been combined somehow.
The episode of BBS that focuses on the darker side of the scene--hackers, crackers, phone phreaks
, and software pirates--opens with a monologue from a portly aging biker called Bootleg with a great frizzy white beard and long hair, who sits astride a great black Harley taking drags from a cigarette.