Phytoplasma infection interferes with plant development and induces morphological and physiological changes, including: witches'-broom, phyllody, virescence, bolting, reddening of leaves and stems, generalized yellowing, stunting and decline (Hogenhout et al., 2008).
roseus plants exhibiting different symptoms related to phytoplasma infection (witches'-broom, phyllody, virescense, leaf yellowing, dwarfing, etc.) were collected from home gardens, sidewalks, and parks at different locations in the seven provinces of Costa Rica [Alajuela province: Alajuela, Cartago province: Dulce Nombre, Paraiso, Turrialba; Guanacaste province: Hojancha, Filadelfia, Canas, Samara, Santa Cruz; Heredia province: Santo Domingo; Limon province: Cahuita; Puntarenas province: Chomes, Esparza, Paso Canoas, Potrero Grande, Quebrada Grande, Tarcoles; and San Jose province: Coronado, Moravia, Perez Zeledon, San Pedro, Sabanilla].
Incidence of phyllody was noticed in only 3 genotypes ranging from 0.2% in Kalika to 1.0% in Maghi Local.
Both these characters exhibited significantly high positive correlation with plant height, branches/plant and incidence of phyllody. No significant association was observed for any trait with seed yield although the direction and magnitude of correlation coefficients varied.
Unfortunately, it is susceptible to Paulownia witches' broom disease, a serious and destructive disease, caused by phytoplasmas that belong to "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense." These phytoplasmas are unculturable, lack cell walls, and have obligated symbiotic relationships with insects and plants , resulting in symptoms of witches' broom, short internodes, phyllody
, and yellowing of leaves, eventually resulting in death [2, 3].
Among the various diseases of China aster, phyllody
disease is major constraint in flower yield and seed production.
Transmission experiments on coconut lethal yellowing disease with Deltocephalus flavicosta Stal, a leafhopper vector of periwinkle phyllody
Symptomatology, etiology and transmission of chickpea phyllody
disease in Pakistan.
Virus and virus like organisms, causing diseases such as mosaic, leaf curl and phyllody
, have also been reported (Roy, 1931).
Ten leaf and stem samples showing symptoms of phyllody
and stunting were collected from plants grown in Agricultural Research Station field Riyadh region Saudi Arabia during December 2011.
Chickpea productivity, however, remained virtually stagnant over recent decades because of its susceptibility to diseases such as Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt, Neocosmospora root rot, Macrophomina charcoal/collar rot and phyllody
(Akhtar et al., 2009; Ali et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2011).
This report deals with a case of phyllody
, flower abnormality which is described as leaf-like development of the floral organs.