He is well-read in history (history of Transylvania, in particular), physiognomics
, he even speaks German.
25) French scholars have been attracted primarily to physiognomics
and gender, but many other aspects have also received attention, ranging from the interaction of bodies to the symbolic value of scars, the significance of hair or the iconographic relationship of body and armor in attic vase painting.
In spite of this, since the first experiments of physical anthropology, craniology, phrenology, physiognomics
, and anthropometry, what was operative in their systems of classification were measurable visual marks, exteriority or physical characteristics (bones, skulls, blood vessels, genitals, brains, blood quantum) which heuristic measurement was secured by the replicability, certainty and universality of experiments, data-extractions, gauges and grids.
1) To characterize physiognomics
and related branches of
14) Casta paintings, especially those produced after 1750, remind the male viewer of the futility of physiognomics
and the danger of coupling with a woman who had any African ancestry no matter how Spanish she appeared.
First and least studied, physiognomics
dated from ancient times and implicated some major figures, including Cicero, who discussed the sermo coporis, the language of the body.
Barton, Power and Knowledge: Astrology, Physiognomics
and Medicine under the Roman Empire (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995).
38) These theories can be traced back to the humanistic physiognomy of the Swiss Pastor Johann Caspar Lavater, whose Physiognomische Fragmente, zur Beforderung der Menschenkenntni[beta] und Menschenliebe (Physiognomic
Fragments for the Promotion of Human Understanding and Human Love) in the late 18th century was the first attempt to present physiognomy as a natural-scientific discipline, codifying physiognomics
"as a strictly positivistic and empirical science in the Enlightenment sense.
Moore's essay on Goethe's Werther and Lavater's physiognomics
The premodern sciences explored in this historiographical enterprise include complexional physiology, physiognomics
(physiognomy, chiromancy, metoposcopy), astrology, and, to a lesser degree, alchemy.
The longstanding attribution of the Physiognomics
to Aristotle himself lent huge authority to the science of face reading.
Adorno begins with a critique of this metaphor--"this concept of physiognomics
is obsolete .