The pristine (Pr) to phytane
(Ph) ratio is a good indicator of the depositional environment.
The isoprenoids pristane (Pr) and phytane
(Ph) are abundant in all oil shale samples (Fig.
15 phytochemicals including 5 fatty acids, methyl iso-pentadecanoate (37), methyl pentadecylate (40), isopropyl myristate (41), methyl elaidate (56), and 9Z,12E-Octadecadienoic acid ME (60); 2 fatty aldehydes, nonanal (16) and 2E-decenal (20); 2 fatty alcohols, lignocerol (68) and pentacosyl alcohol (73); 4 isoprenoids, phytane
(36), iso-phytol (42), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (43), and E-phytol (57), and 2 phytosteroids, O-Sitosterol (79) and fucosterol (81) were identified for the first time from S.
The compounds with low carbon number (lower than [C.sub.20]) are phytane
series compounds, which are the strong reduction products of the pigment in higher plants or photosynthetic bacteria.
The ratio of pristane (Pr) and phytane
(Ph) value is 6.35 in the Wenchang source rocks from well 243 with low content of 4-methyl sterane (Figure 10), which means that the source rocks were formed in a shallow water environment.
no 30730, Bellefonte, PA) spiked with phytane
and several additional n-alkanes providing a retention definition of carbon number up to [C.sub.40].
Samples of the megalopae were initially taken to an independent laboratory in Pensacola, FL, for analytical testing and the presence of the dispersant compound dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate and the biomarkers pristane and phytane
were identified in the samples using an AccuTOF-DART Mass Spectrometer, JEOL Ltd.
The ratios of dibenzothiophene to phenanthrene and pristane to phytane
as indicators of depositional environment and lithology of petroleum source rocks.
The GC flow rates were optimized to provide a required degree of separation, particularly n-[C.sub.17] and pristane (baseline resolved), and n-[C.sub.18] and phytane
There was a high percentage of heavy chain compounds (C27 to C37) along with recalcitrant pristane and phytane
initially present in the crude oil.
paniculata % sabinene 46.3 germacrene-D 11.5 (E)-[beta]-ocimene 14.0 pentocosanal 9.2 [DELTA]([beta])-carene 6.9 [beta]-caryophyllene 7.8 limonene 5.0 [beta]-cubebene 7.4 linalool 3.8 [alpha]-zingiberene 4.4 [C.sub.10][H.sub.16] 2.6 [alpha]-copaene 3.2 [beta]-pinene 2.2 2-ethyl hexanol 2.6 [alpha]-pinene 1.7 2,2-dimethylindane 2.5 [beta]-caryophyllene 1.4 (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate 2.5 [beta]-cubebene 1.2 phytane
2.1 decanoic acid ester 1.9 UNKNOWN 1.5 [alpha]-humulene 1.4 (E)-2-hexenal 1.4 p-ethylacetophenone 1.3 [delta]-cadinene 1.3 [alpha]-cucurmene 1.3 N,N-dimethylstearylamine 1.2 UNKNOWN 1.2 UNKNOWN 1.2 UNKNOWN 1.1 nonanal 1.1 phenoxypropanol 1.1 nonadecane 1.0 C.
Among them were alkanes, 4 phenyl valeric acid, 5 isopentyl picolinic acid, 3 hydroxylauric acid, (5 a, 3[beta]) 3-hydroxy-11-androstanone, 5[alpha]-2-en-11 androstenone, squalene, terpinol (a terpineol), menthol derivatives, palmitic, oleic and eicosanoic acids, and isoprenoid phytane
. These compounds have shown biologic activity in their isolated form as antioxidants, analgesics, anti-inflammatories, immune stimulants, antineoplastics, detoxicants, membrane regulators, and hormones.