While both responses were blocked by the classical GABA antagonists picrotoxin
and bicuculline, they did not cross-desensitize, and only the acetylcholine (ACh) response was blocked by [alpha]-bungarotoxin and strychnine.
In mice, [D.sup.9]-THC increased kindling caused by picrotoxin
, PTZ or electroshock (16).
Therefore, in addition to testing the effects of memantine, we decided to expand our investigation to include three additional molecules of interest to the study of DS that could potentially shed some light on this specific form of LTP in Ts65Dn mice: (1) picrotoxin
; (2) amyloid beta (A[beta]) oligomers; and (3) soluble (membrane anchor-free) recombinant human prion protein (rPrP).
(Sigma-Aldrich), a blocker of the [GABA.sub.A] receptor type, and propofol (Propotil[R], Biochimico, Brazil), a [GABA.sub.A] agonist anesthetic, were included in the protocol in order to evaluate the sedative and anesthetic effects of the studied compounds on the [GABA.sub.A] receptor type.
In the S2 condition, bath-applied GABA antagonist (picrotoxin
, 100 [micro]M) changed the response latency from negative to positive and reduced the noise correlation in Ft GC pairs (Fig.
Linsenmeier, "Effects of picrotoxin
and strychnine on non-linear responses of Y-type cat retinal ganglion cells.," The Journal of Physiology, vol.
The facilitatory effect of mGluR5 activation on mPFC output was restored with inhibitors of the postsynaptic 2-AG hydrolyzing enzyme ABHD6 (intracellular WWL70) and the monoacylglycerol lipase MGL (JZL184) to increase availability of 2-AG in the postsynaptic cell or with a [GABA.sub.A] receptor blocker (intracellular picrotoxin
macrostachyus using mice model (maximal electroshock (MES), strychnine (STR), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), picrotoxin
(PIC), isonicotinic hydrazide acid (INH))-induced convulsions and diazepam-induced sleep in assessing the sedative effects.
In a study, (S)-(+)-carvone (200 mg/kg) was reported to increase the latency of convulsions induced by PTZ and picrotoxin
. (22) Another study showed the anticonvulsant ability of cyanocarvone in the mouse hippocampus, probably through increasing the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme.
There are no credible evidence of anticonvulsant effect of this plant in bibliographic resources and databases, so methanolic extracts of papaver somniferum on generalized tonic seizures and clonic seizures induced by picrotoxin
in mice has been studied.
Effect of intra cerebro ventricular picrotoxin
and muscimol on intravenous bupivacaine toxicity.
Lidierth, "Laminar distribution of GABA A- and glycine-receptor mediated tonic inhibition in the dorsal horn of the rat lumbar spinal cord: effects of picrotoxin
and strychnine on expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity," Pain, vol.