process: A model for second language acquisition.
Creolization and Pidginization
in Contexts of Postcolonial Diversity: Language, Culture, Identity
"Language contact and pidginization
in Davis Strait, Hudson Strait, and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (northeast Canada)." In Erwin H.
and language change in emigrant languages.
Gonzo S e Saltarelli M (1983) Pidginization
and Linguistic Change in Emigrant Languages.
process from which Lingala originated, as well as the highly multilingual ecology in which the Kinshasa variety developed and expanded, can reasonably explain the patterns of simplification and reduction in the domain of grammatical gender that differentiate this variety from other Bantu languages, on the one hand, and from the standardized variety introduced by the missionaries in the northwestern areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo (Makanza Lingala), on the other (on this account, see also Bokamba 1977, 2009).
Table 2 Examples of idioms due to pidginization
Idioms Literal meaning Idiomatic meaning Vb + Vb or V1 + V1 Kari Carry and come Loan form of the pidgin koomu--kari + koomu = English word 'carry carry come come' for: come in/pack.
Interestingly, McKellin (1991) writes of a 'pidginization
' of land claim among the neighbouring Managalasi in the 1980s.
and Creolization: The Case of Arabic.