Understanding such cellular mechanisms is fundamental to comprehending the evolution of adaptive color change and cell signaling in all manner of crustacean pigment cells
. Further, cell-signaling pathways have been conserved in different crustacean taxa and in different types of pigment-bearing cells such as chromatophores and retinal cells; they also appear to have been conserved in a variety of vertebrate pigment cell
As hair follicles form, many other cells in the local environment simultaneously coordinate epidermal and dermal maturation, pigment cell
migration, nerve cell distribution, and more.
The study has been published in the scientific journal Pigment Cell
Establishment of pigment cell
lineage in embryos of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus.
The study has been published in the Pigment Cell
and Melanoma Research journal.
Such data find support in other pigment cell
Anatomical changes resulting from exposure to nitric oxide were preceded by an apparent inhibition of pigment cell
division, These results indicate that sea urchin embryos exposed to nitric oxide before their development into morula show permanent morphological changes, whereas exposure at later stages has no apparent permanent effects.
The mechanisms responsible for the centripetal and centrifugal movement of the granules within the constituent chromatophores are regulated by small peptide hormones of neurosecretory origin, often specific and antagonistic for each pigment cell
type, but generally termed pigment concentrating (PCH) and pigment dispersing (PDH) chromatophorotropins (Josefsson, 1983; Rao and Fingerman, 1983; Fingerman, 1985).
They identified a number of compounds that affected pigment cell
development and have now shown with their US collaborators at Children's Hospital Boston that leflunomide significantly restricts tumour growth in mouse models.
They are ovoid to conical and consist of a single photocyte and two types of pigment cell
. In fresh specimens, the clear nucleus of the photocyte can be seen at its basal, most ventral (closest to the cuticle) end [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3 OMITTED].
The findings appeared online last week in the journal Pigment Cell
and Melanoma Research.
This cell type is referred to here as a putative pigment cell
, because it matches the morphology and distribution of the pigment cells
described by Smith (1937) and Yoshida (1966).