Although these exclusive access rights are rare in Aboriginal societies, limited examples include ethnographic evidence of a man claiming exclusive access to a waterhole (Keen 2004:280); the assertion of exclusive use rights of honey trees by demarcating the tree (Keen 2004:285); and the trade in the pituri
simulant, where Aboriginal groups maintained an economic monopoly by keeping preparation methods secret (Keen 2004:356).
Jeanette Hoorn, 'White Lubra/White Savage: Pituri
and Colonialist Fantasy in Charles Chauvel's Uncivilised (1936)', Post Script, vol.
Subjects covered include medicinal flowers, particularly the daisy family, validation and new research on traditional remedies, soil quality and ingestion, desert-specific plants, nightshades, tobacco as a medicine, steroidal substances in food plants, and the atypical narcotic pituri
. The book includes extensive photographic illustration.
Psychoactive substances of the South Seas: betel, kava and pituri
. Australian New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 19: 83-87.
The second period of change occurs during the last millennium, when there is increasing segmentation of rock art and the development of "long-transfer systems" involving axes, grindstones, ochre, pituri
and leilira blades.
Coca was domesticated in the western Andes close to 7,000 years ago, and the consumption of tobacco in the Americas, pituri
in Australia, and khat in Eastern Africa already represented ancient practices when European colonists made first contact, perhaps dating back 40,000 years or more.
Australian Aboriginal people used the plant pituri
(Duboisia hopwoodil) for its nicotine content, as well as the plant Nicotiana gossei, which is a stimulant (Sullivan & Hagen 2002: 390; Watson 1983).
It is with the last category, drugs, that I found reports of the intentional use of psychedelic plants for psychic experiences across all five continents, from the use of nicotine-rich pituri
(Duboisia hopwoodii) by indigenous Australians (Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research, 2004) and datura (Datura metel) on the Indian subcontinent (Schuhes & Hofmann, 1992), to the use of iboga (Tabernanthe iboga) in central Africa (Pinchbeck, 2002), Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) in north Africa and the Middle East (Rudgley, 1998), mandrake (Mandragora officinarum) in Europe (Muller-Ebeling, Rfitsch, & Storl, 2003), and fly-agaric (Amanita muscaria) mushrooms in Siberia (Rudgley, 1998) and north America (Wasson, 1979).
The incident was carried out by at least 50 Maoists carrying guns and wearing uniforms on the first day of their weeklong 'Jan Pituri
' (Revolutionary Week) that commenced on Saturday.
Australian aborigines used nicotine from both the pituri
plant (Duboisia hopwoodii) and Nicotiana gossel before the arrival of Europeans, as did Native Americans (from native Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana rustica) [6, 9].
The main Aboriginal trade routes from the north headed west into the Kimberleys or south through Coopers Creek into South Australia to trade 'pituri
' and other goods.
Duboisia hopwoodii, the pituri
bush, was one of the most important plants of commerce among pre-contact Aboriginal people and complex trading routes existed which were well recognised across tribal boundaries.