Facial divergence was determined by mandibular plane angle
(SN-MP) used in Steiner's analysis.20 Age range of the sample was 16 years to 31 years.
It is observed that the basal plane angle
, SNB, L1 to MP, FMA showed significant differences between manual and digital methods (p<0.05).
1) SNA: sella-nasionpoint A angle, representing the positional relationship (anterior and posterior) of the maxilla with respect to the skull; 2)SNB: sella-nasion-point B angle, representing the positional relationship (anterior and posterior) of the mandible relative to the skull; 3) ANB: AB plane angle
, representing the positional relationship of the maxilla and mandible to the skull; 4) A-Ptm: representing the length of maxillary body; 5) MPSN: representing the steepness of the mandibular body; 6) ANS-Me/N-Me: lower face height to total face height ratio; 7) U1-SN: the inclination of the maxillary incisor relative to the SN plane; 8) L1-MP: The inclination of the mandibular incisor relative to the mandibular plane (Fig.
U1 to SN plane angle
: It is the inferior inside angle formed between the long axis of the upper incisor and Sella-nasion plane.
Without constraints on l and [theta], when the Lagrange function L = [[??].sup.2], the length of the tether l changes within the reasonable range of 400~1000 m and meanwhile the in plane angle
[theta] varies in the range of -48[degrees]~0[degrees].
The low OP facial type presents with the following characteristics: decreased OP angle; low mandibular plane angle
; prominent mandibular gonial angles; strong chin relative to the mandibular dental alveolus; and Class I, Class II, or occasionally, Class III malocclusion.
The influence of factors such as the bedding plane angle
and core scale effect on the tensile brittleness is analyzed based on the simulation results.
Long face has excessive vertical facial growth and typically associated with anterior open bite and an increased maxillary/mandibular planes angle, sella-nasion/mandibular plane angle
and gonial angle (1).
* P<0.05, ** P<0.01, *** P<0.0001 Table 2: Skeletal and dental measurements Landmark Definition Skeletal measurements SNA Angle formed between Sella, nasion and point A SNB Angle formed between Sella, nasion and point B ANB Angle formed between point A, nasion and point B FMA Frankfort's mandibular plane angle
. SN/PP Angle formed between Sella-nasion and palatal plane.
Regarding Pakistani studies, a study was done to establish correlation between ANB, Wits value and palatal plane angle
. It was found that statistically significant correlations were found between ANB angle and Wits appraisal, while statistically insignificant correlation was found between palatal plane angle
, ANB and Wits value suggesting that rotational change in the palatal plane with reference to Sella-Nasion plane had no impact on the sagittal assessment parameters.
Cephalometric summar Measurement Standard Pretreatment Posttreatment [SIGMA] 396[+ or -]3 397 398 GoMe-SN ([degrees]) 32[+ or -]7 36 37 Maxillary height ([degrees]) 60 59 59 FMA ([degrees]) 25 27 28 SNA ([degrees]) 82[+ or -]2 80 80 SNB ([degrees]) 80[+ or -]2 76 76 ANB ([degrees]) 2 4 4 NperA (mm) -1 1.4 1.5 I-SN ([degrees]) 103 102 103 IMPA ([degrees]) 90 94 95 [SIGMA]: sum of inner angles; GoMe-SN: Gonion, Menton-Sella, Nasion; FMA: Frankfort-mandibular plane angle
; SNA: Sella--Nasion-point A; SNB: Sella-Nasion-point B; ANB: point A-Nasion-point B; NperA: Nasion perpendicular point A; I-SN: Incisor-Sella, Nasion; IMPA: Incisor-mandibular plane angle