A conventional biconvex or planoconvex lens may be able to produce the desired beam size; however, due to spherical and chromatic aberrations that are introduced by these types of lenses, the quality of the resulting beam is not satisfactory for high-resolution OCT applications.
Light emitted from the plasma was collected by a pair of matching coaxial fused silica planoconvex lenses ([f.sub.2] = [f.sub.3] = 38.1 mm) and guided into a 230 [micro]m diameter optical fiber for linking with a Mechelle 5000 spectrometer (Andor Technology Ltd., Belfast, UK).
The pump laser had a repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse duration of 5 ns, and these laser pulses were made incident on the QD solutions in cuvettes as line of light obtained via a planoconvex (quartz) lens (Edmund Optics).
In 1959, Dyson first proposed that a simple concentric arrangement of a planoconvex lens and concave mirror would be free of all Seidel aberrations at the design wavelength and center of a field imaged at 1:1 magnification .
For laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection, a laser beam was incident on the chip at an angle of 45[degrees] and focused on near the end of the separation channel with a planoconvex fused-silica lens (100 mm focal length; CVI Laser Optics & Coatings, Alibuquerque, NM, USA).