1957; Lacalli, 2005), and "direct." usually meaning some kind of uniformly ciliated planuliform larva.
Like the palaeonemertean larvae, hoplonemertean planktonic larvae are opaque and uniformly ciliated and superficially resemble cnidarian planulae, hence the name "planuliform" larva (Norenburg and Strieker.
Large cells of the transitory larval epidermis gave the 2-day-old planuliform planktonic larva the bumpy appearance of a pickling cucumber, reminiscent of that of the Antarctonemertes phyllospadicola embryos removed from the egg cocoon.
SAM recently observed a similar structure in planuliform larvae of Panlinonemertes californiensis.
The transitory epidermis of the planuliform larva of Paranemertes peregrina is composed of about 90 large multiciliated cleavage-arrested cells, which are gradually replaced by the much more numerous and smaller intercalating cells of the definitive epidermis.