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Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), encoded by SERPINE1, is a specific inhibitory member of plasminogen activation (PA) system.[15] Except for its key role in acute thrombotic events, PAI-1 was also expected to prevent cancer invasion and metastasis through its inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was demonstrated to be involved in malignant dissemination.[15] Indeed, there were some published articles showing this metastasis inhibitory effect.[16],[17],[18] However, more articles suggested its pro-oncogenic roles.[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24] In PC/PDAC, different in vitro and in vivo experiments also got inconsistent, even opposite results.[17],[19],[23] However, those for its prognostic significance in PDAC seem to be more consistent.
Ten years after publishing the article "Thrombolytic Alphabet Soup: A Recipe for Disaster," the Institute for Safe Medication Practices recommended that the abbreviation "t-PA" or "TPA" for tissue plasminogen activator not be used when referring to alteplase, including verbal or written orders.
Prognostic and predictive value of intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in metastatic prostate cancer.
Bachmann, "Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 in various disease states," Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol.
Bhattachar, "Comment on "soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor plasma concentration may predict susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema"," Mediators of Inflammation, vol.
Though limited by a smaller number of postimplementation cases and lack of 3-month poststroke functional outcome data, the findings suggest that 24/7 in-hospital availability of a neurologist improves door to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment times and in-hospital stroke mortality, Dr.
Kuo et al., "Structure of human urokinase plasminogen activator in complex with its receptor," Science, vol.
Hirakata, "Subretinal injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for submacular hemorrhage associated with ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm," Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family [5], and it accounts for ~60% of the total PAI in the plasma.
Two physiologic plasminogen activators are capable of catalyzing the conversion of plasminogen: tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (t-PA and u-PA, resp.).
Several randomized controlled studies have evaluated the effectiveness of early intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment at improving stroke symptoms while also reducing both disability and mortality.
An increased production of pro-inflammatory molecules and a decrease in the fibrinolytic capacity has been described in the course of this pathology, which generally is attributed to in creased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (4-7).

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