astaxanthin), which color the algal thallus yellow, orange, or red; the absence of a pyrenoid in the chloroplasts; unique flagellar apparatus; and transverse cell walls with plasmodesmata
are not detected between the basal cell and the neighboring epidermal cells; however, numerous plasmodesmata
occur in the common walls between the basal and mesophyll cells in Spartina foliosa Trin.
Plants use silencing small (s)RNA to control physiological and defensive processes at both the cellular and organismal levels by trafficking sRNAs from cell-to-cell through plasmodesmata
and over long distances through the phloem.
A number of specialized cells act to efficiently redirect solutes from the host's vascular tissues, including transfer cells that absorb solutes from the host sieve tubes (Gunning and Pate, 1969) and searching hyphae that connect host plasmodesmata
(Birschwilks et al.
2011), embryogenic cells have no cell wall thickening and show large amounts of plasmodesmata
connecting the cells.
At this stage, there are well-developed plasmodesmata
beteen the archegonial cells and the somatic cells (Fig.
Two different ways of the small-distance motion of the fluids are present in plants, namely direct intracellular transport through the plasmodesmata
(thin channels between the cytoplasmic volumes of the adjacent cells with diameters [d.
Pit membranes of Abies are traversed by secondary plasmodesmata
are unique to plants and form an intercellular continuum for the transport of solutes, signals, and ribonucleoprotein complexes.
Objective: The symplastic route composed of plasmodesmata
(PD) channels and the transporting phloem tissue (rich in PD) is the major pathway for carbon allocation in plants.
connect the egg and the ventral canal cell, but are absent between the egg and the jacket cells.