Uniportal VATS was performed using a 10 mm thoracoport introduced through a 1-1.5 cm long incision in the sixth or seventh intercostal space on the anterior axillary line, followed by introducing an operative Hopkins telescope (Karl Storz Hopkins[R]; Tuttlingen, Germany) into the pleural space
. After the pleural adhesions were separated, pleural effusion was aspirated, and the expansion capacity of the lung was observed.
Despite its many benefits, there are several potentially significant complications inherent to chest tube insertion (CTI), a commonly used invasive procedure to evacuate air or fluid from the pleural space
. The average rate of complications following CTI ranges from 5% to 10%, whereas insertion-related complications are rare.
A video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) of the left pleural space
In order to achieve the correct diagnosis, fluid or tissue samples taken from the pleural space
should undergo cyto/histopathological examination.
According to the literature, in patients with the first episode of the SP treatment goal mainly focuses on removal of the accumulated air in pleural space
; however, recurrence prevention is the primary concern in patients with secondary or relapsing pneumothoraxes.3,10 In the current randomized controlled trial, results showed no significant difference between NA and CTD techniques concerning immediate and one-week success rate of the treatment; however, patients who benefited NA technique had a shorter hospital stay accompanied with lower pain intensity.
Pleural empyema is a purulent fluid presence in the pleural space
and is a known and frequently encountered complication of pneumonia in children.
Among the respiratory symptoms are the acute onset of chest pain and shortness of breath that can even lead to fever, pleural effusion (a buildup of fluid in the pleural space
, an area between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and the chest cavity), etc.
Pleural effusion is a build-up of fluid in the pleural space
, which is the space in your cat's chest between the protective linings covering the lungs and the walls of the chest cavity itself.
Empyema thoracis is the collection of pus in the pleural space
. Empyema commonly results from pneumonia, bloodborne infection, thoracic surgery, trauma, abdominal infection or neoplasm.
Ultrasound imaging can detect as little as 5-20 mL fluid in the pleural space
. Chest radiography requires a minimum amount of 200-300 mL fluid in the pleural space
to obliterate the costophrenic angle.
Defined as the accumulation of urine within the pleural space
, urinothorax may occur either due to the passage of intra-abominal urinary ascites through diaphragmatic lymphatics or via a congenital or acquired rent in the diaphragm.
Empyema is a collection of pus in pleural space
, predominantly polymorphs, and it is positive on Gram stain/Ziehl-Neelsen stain and low glucose.