Clinical manifestations can include fever, arthritis, skin rashes, pericarditis, pleuritis
, nephrite, anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and central nervous system involvement in exacerbation periods (2).
Thus, tuberculous pleuritis
remains a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality.
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive auto inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent fever attacks and inflammation of the serous membranes (peritonitis, pleuritis
, pericarditis, arthritis, etc.
Pleural adhesions suggest a previous bout of pleuritis
, even if pleural inflammation is absent in the biopsy, and it should be remembered that pleuritis
is a characteristic pleuropulmonary manifestation of CTD.
, and abdominal complaints come into prominence in polyarteritis nodosa, which is another granulomatous disease, and or al and genital ulcers are common symptoms in Behcet's disease (4).
It is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis
, arthritis, and erysipelas-like skin lesions.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is isolated in culture in only 20% to 40% of cases of confirmed tuberculous pleuritis
, the diagnostic yield of the culture being low in pleural fluid, but may be increased if a sample of pleural tissue is also cultured (6,8,9).
Eight patients had a history of old tuberculosis, including pulmonary tuberculosis, bone tuberculosis, scrofula, intestinal tuberculosis, tuberculous pleuritis
, tuberculous pericarditis, and tuberculosis of the parotid gland.
The recommended review of systems and exams to assess for systemic lupus erythematosus in CLE patients include asking about photosensitivity, looking for mucosal ulcers, and assessing for arthritis, as well as asking about a history of pericarditis or pleuritis
, and a history of low blood counts, kidney disease, seizures, and malar rash.
20) Severe disease, age (adults and young teenagers), and serogroup C seems to predispose to post-infectious immune associated complications including arthritis, vasculitis, pleuritis
, or pericarditis.
The lesions at necropsy are sero-fibrinous pleuritis
, accumulation of straw-colored pleural fluid, and a varying degree of lung consolidation or necrosis with marble appearance (Nicholas et al.
Adenosine deaminase activity is a sensitive marker for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis
in patients with very low CD4 counts.