The same fact holds good with flowering plants, of which the two main divisions have been founded on characters derived from the embryo,--on the number and position of the embryonic leaves or cotyledons, and on the mode of development of the plumule
137]Cs was found to have accumulated around the plumule
and radicle, suggesting that [sup.
Improved seedling vigor and plant growth in treatments with seed priming (SP) of MLE, foliar spray (F) and their combination (SP+F) (Table 2) may be owed to the enhanced mobilization of germination related metabolites/inorganic solutes present in MLE (Table 1) to the growing plumule
or the increase in amylase activity and reducing sugars of primed seeds (Afzal et al.
Heterosis brings gains in grain yield, earlier flowering, greater number of leaves, taller plants, more tillers and panicles per plant, heavier seeds, more seeds per panicle (Acquaah, 2012), a faster seedling emergence rate, more vigourous seedlings and a higher plumule
dry weight (Yu & Tuinstra, 2001; Cisneros-Lopez, Mendoza-Onofre, Mora-Aguilera, Cordova-Tellez, & Livera-Munoz, 2007; Leon-Velasco et al.
The reduction in germination (%), delayed germination, decrease in radical and plumule
growth and dry matter weight of maize and wheat seedlings may be linked to suppressive influences of allelopathic compounds present in sunflower which possibly modified cell division, physiological functions and absorption capacity of test plants seedlings .
Phytotoxicity tests (Ghani, 1998; Ayeni and Yahaya, 2010) were performed by measuring the mean lengths of plumule
and radicle by selecting five plants at random.
Effect of biopriming of chickpea seeds on emergence, plumule
and radical length in vitro
of the embryonic axis is differentiated in two leaf primordia, constituted by the first and second leaf sheath (Figure 4--vi and vii).
The mesocotyl is the first internode connection between the coleoptile and the plumule
Bakhtyary and Hamedy  showed that in studying the effects of salinity stress on kidney beans, increasing salinity resulted to signifisant decreasing effect on rate and percentage of germination and also decreased the vegetative traits such as; radicle and plumule
length, fresh weight of radicle and plumule
, and plumule
Its burning in the fields can reduce germination, biomass growth, plumule
and radical length of different crops.
ratio was calculated as dry weight for roots/dry weight for top of plant.