The same fact holds good with flowering plants, of which the two main divisions have been founded on characters derived from the embryo,--on the number and position of the embryonic leaves or cotyledons, and on the mode of development of the plumule
We conclude that, in a breeding program for chilling tolerance, it is an effective strategy to select in the laboratory at 17 [degrees] C for plumule
greening ability and a high index for germination rate with data for germination at 72 and 168 h.
A seed is considered for germination when both plumule
and radicle have emerged to 5 mm.
(2006) investigated the effects of salinity stress on germination of Haloxylon aphyllum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus and Hammada salcornica and reported that the percentage of germination, germination rate, plumule
and radical length were decreased with increasing of salinity.
The beneficial effects of osmo- and hydro- priming are associated with increase in radicle and plumule
At 15 DAF, the various components of the embryo such as scutellum, radicle, and plumule
were well developed (Fig.
None of seed coating treatments improve the radicle length and leaf score; however plumule
length, number of secondary roots and seedling fresh and dry weights were improved by seed coating with 2 g B kg-1 seed in both cultivars.
Statistical analysis showed that the effect of osmotic potential was significant on germination and root length at 5% level of probability, while the effect of priming duration was significant on plumule
length (Table 1).
esculentus, where germination, radicle and plumule
length were reduced by a range of 58.34%-97.92%, 35.84-94.33% and 1.65-87.55%, respectively.
The seeds from the towels were not allowed to germinate before being planted out in soil, to avoid damaging the radicle or plumule
. There was one bag per plot, which made a total of 20 bags for the experiment.
Primed seeds had better efficiency for water absorption from growing media and it is obvious that metabolic activities in seed during germination process commence much earlier than radicle and plumule
appearance, that is, emergence .
The beneficial effects of osmo- and hydro- primings are associated with increase in radicle and plumule