FEV[sub]1, FEV[sub]1%, and FVC were measured using a pneumotachometer
(3830, Hans-Rudolph, Shawnee, USA) or a handheld spirometer (Micro, CareFusion, Basingstoke, UK) according to international standards.
V[O.sub.2]peak (L/min), relative V[O.sub.2]peak (ml/kg/min) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured through breath-by-breath with an automatic gas analysis system (Metasys TR-plus, Brainware SA, La Valette, France) equipped with a pneumotachometer
and using a two-way mask (Hans Rudolph, Kansas, USA).
The tidal volume was obtained by a Pitot pneumotachometer
(Jager) connected to the system by a face mask, selected according to the size of the participant's face, to be properly adjusted and avoid air leaks.
Spirometry was done on both sportsmen players and control groups with Medspiror a portable, computerized pneumotachometer
(manufactured by Medsystems Pvt., Ltd., Chandigarh).
The measured airway resistance was corrected for the resistance of the pneumotachometer
and the tracheal cannula of 0.6 cm [H.sub.2]O s/mL.
A mouthpiece joined with pneumotachometer
was tightly inserted in a subject's mouth and a clamping clip was set on their noses (Photo 1).
Flow volume loops and FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, FEF (25%-75%) were recorded using a calibrated Schiller Spirovit SP-1 pneumotachometer
. The subjects were explained the whole maneuver.
Paul, Minnesota, USA), using medium pneumotachometer
(6 to 120 L x [min.sup.-1]).
Scientists studied six dolphins in Hawaii using a pneumotachometer
, which measures the movement of lungs.
A Jaeger Masterscreen pneumotachometer
system (Erich Jaeger, Germany), with daily volume calibration as per American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) protocol was used for lung function tests.
Flow was monitored with a pneumotachometer
(Model 300L, ADInstruments Inc; Colorado Springs, Colorado).
The minimum requirements for accuracy with a spirometer and a pneumotachometer
* Signal Requirement Volume (pneumotachometer
) Check daily with 3 l calibration syringe Range 0 - 8 l Accuracy ~3% or [+ or -] 50 ml, whichever is greater Resolution 25 ml Time Duration (for forced manoeuvre) 15 s Accuracy ~1% Flow Check quarterly with 1 l increments with calibrating syringe Range 0 - 15 l/s Accuracy ~3.5% or 0.05 l/s, whichever is greater Software updates Log installation date and perform test with known subject * Adapted from Koegelenberg et a/. and Eber and Zach. Table 2.